Jingoism is defined in the
Oxford English Dictionaryas "extreme patriotismin the form of aggressive foreign policy". [Catherine Soanes (ed.), "Compact Oxford English Dictionary for University and College Students" (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 546.] In practice, it refers to the advocation of the use of threats of or actual force against other countries in order to safeguard what they perceive as their country's national interests, and colloquially to excessive biasin judging one's own country as superior to others.
During the 19th century in the
United States, journalists called this attitude "spread-eagleism". This nationalistic belligerence was intensified by the sinking of the cruiserUSS "Maine" in Havanaharbour that led to the Spanish-American Warof 1898. "Jingoism" did not enter the U.S. vernacular until near the turn of the 20th century.
The chorus of a [http://www.cyberussr.com/hcunn/q-jingo.html song] by
G. H. MacDermott(singer) and G. W. Hunt(songwriter) commonly sung in pubs and music halls around the time of the Russo-Turkish War gave birth to the term. The lyrics had the chorus:
quote|We don't want to fight but
by Jingoif we do
We've got the ships, we've got the men, we've got the money too
We've fought the Bear before, and while we're Britons true
The Russians shall not have Constantinople.
The term "jingoism" was coined by the prominent radical
George Holyoakein a letter to the "Daily News" on 13 March, 1878. [Martin Ceadel, "Semi-detached Idealists: The British Peace Movement and International Relations, 1854-1945" (Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 105.] See " By Jingo" article for further details.
"Jingoism" is broadly used by pacifists, generally referring to the United States of America and its perceived aggressions against other nations.Fact|date=August 2008
Theodore Rooseveltwas frequently accused of jingoism. In an October 8, 1895" New York Times" interview, he responded, "There is much talk about 'jingoism'. If by 'jingoism' they mean a policy in pursuance of which Americans will with resolution and common sense insist upon our rights being respected by foreign powers, then we are 'jingoes'."
*In the 28 March 1938 issue of "Punch" appeared a
E. H. Shepardcartoon entitled THE OLD-FASHIONED CUSTOMER. Set in a record shop, John Bullasks the record seller (Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain): "I wonder if you've got a song I remember about not wanting to fight, but if we do . . . something, something, something . . . we've got the money too?". On the wall is a portrait of former Prime Minister Lord Salisbury. [This cartoon is reprinted in John Charmley, "Chamberlain and the Lost Peace" (Ivan R. Dee, 1989), p. 61.]
*In a review for the latest film in the
Ramboseries, author David Morrelldescribed the character of Rambo in and Rambo IIIas being a "jingoistic character".
Thriceincludes a lyric in the song "The Sky is Falling" which states, "I want to be strong enough to not let fear decide my fate, surrounded by Jingoists, I don't want any part of this".
*"Jingo", a novel by
The Great Game
* [http://www.cyberussr.com/hcunn/q-jingo.html MacDermott song lyrics]
* [http://www.firstworldwar.com/audio/1914.htm The song, Stanley Kirkby - We Didn't Want To Fight]
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