Jesus and Messianic prophecy

Jesus and Messianic prophecy

Christians commonly believe that many verses of the Hebrew Bible are prophecies of the Messiah and that these were fulfilled in the life of Jesus, with the rest to be fulfilled by his Second Coming. (A minority, called Full Preterists, believe the Second Coming has already occurred.) Most Jews believe that the prophets of the Hebrew Bible did not prophesy Jesus would be the Messiah,[1] and no significant Messianic prophecy of Jewish scripture was fulfilled by Jesus.[2]

Jews and Christians do not agree on what Biblical statements constitute "messianic prophecies." Christians point to many statements that they assert are messianic prophecies that Jews do not hold as referring to the messiah at all.


Scriptural requirements concerning the Messiah

The following is an example of a list of scriptural requirements in Judaism and Christianity concerning the Messiah: his actions, and his reign. Jewish and Christian sources both insist that the Messiah will fulfill all relevant prophecies outright.

Jewish Interpretation of Sample Messianic Prophecy Judaism      Christianity
The Sanhedrin will be re-established[3][4] Purple check.svg
Once he is King, leaders of other nations will look to him for guidance.[4][5] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
The whole world will worship the One God of Israel[4][6][7] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
Jews will return to full Torah observance and practice it.[4] Purple check.svg
He will be descended from King David[8] via Solomon[9][10] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
The Mashiach will be a man of this world, an observant Jew with "fear of God"[4][11] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
Evil and tyranny will not be able to stand before his leadership[4][12] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
Knowledge of God will fill the world[4][13] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
He will include and attract people from all cultures and nations[4][14] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
All Israelites will be returned to their homeland[4][15] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
Death will be swallowed up forever[4][16] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
There will be no more hunger or illness, and death will cease[4][16] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
All of the dead will rise again. According to the Zohar, the resurrection will take place forty years
after the arrival of Moshiach[4][17]
Purple check.svg Green check.svg
The Jewish people will experience eternal joy and gladness[4][18] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
He will be a messenger of peace[4][19] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
Nations will end up recognizing the wrongs they did to Israel[4][20] Purple check.svg
The people of the world will turn to the Jews for spiritual guidance[4][21] Purple check.svg
The ruined cities of Israel will be restored[4][22] Purple check.svg
Weapons of war will be destroyed[4][23] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
The Temple will be rebuilt[24] resuming many of the suspended 613 mitzvot.[4] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
He will rebuild the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem.[9][7][25] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
He will gather the Jewish people from exile and return them to Israel.[9][26] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
He will bring world peace.[9][7][27] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
He will influence the entire world to acknowledge and serve one God.[9][28] Purple check.svg Green check.svg
He will then perfect the entire world to serve God together[4][29]
He will give you all the worthy desires of your heart[4][30]
Purple check.svg Green check.svg
He will take the barren land and make it abundant and fruitful[4][31] Purple check.svg Green check.svg

Verses claimed as fulfilled prophecies

Daniel 9:24-27

"Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy. Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined." - Daniel 9:24-27 (Authorized Version 1611)

Some Christians interpret the phrase that the Messiah "would be cut off, but not for himself" as meaning that he would be killed for someone else and take this as being fulfilled by the crucifixion of Jesus. According to these Christians, the references to "most holy", "anointed" and "prince" speak of Jesus, while the phrase "anointed shall be cut off" points to his crucifixion, and the "people of the prince who is to come" are the Romans who destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple in 70 AD.[32]

In the Gospel of Mark, Jesus refers to the “horrible abomination” or “abomination of desolation,” (Mark 13:14) and the Gospel of Matthew adds a direct reference to this as being from the Book of Daniel, "So when you see the desolating sacrilege spoken of by the prophet Daniel…" (Matt 24:15)

The general scholarly view[33][34] is that Daniel is writing a contemporaneous account of the Maccabean Revolt c. 167 BCE and the "cutting off of an anointed one" (9:26)— refers to the murder of the high priest Onias III; the "abomination that causes desolation" refers to Antiochus IV erecting a statue of Zeus in the Temple, the final straw breaking the uneasy coexistence of the traditionalist Jews and the more Hellenized Jews.

This view is also supported by the Jewish Encyclopedia[35] as the well the Roman Catholic New American Bible commentary.[36] A similar event happens in 132 CE, where Hadrian erects a statue of Jupiter on the sacred ground of the Temple, sparking the Bar Kokhba Revolt. A minority view Jesus' prediction of the abomination causing desolation to refer to Hadrian erecting the statue of Jupiter and "false Christs" as a reference to Simon bar Kokhba, who was considered a messiah for a while after the revolt.

Deuteronomy 18:15

Deuteronomy 18 is one of the earliest prophecies which speaks of a prophet who would be raised up from among the Jewish nation.

15 "The LORD will raise up for you a prophet like me from among yourselves, from your own kinsmen. You are to pay attention to him ... 18I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their kinsmen. I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I order him." (CJB)

Some Evangelical Christians claim that in the first century CE, Jews expected a final prophet.[37] The Gospel of John states that the Jews of Jesus' time asked John the Baptist if he were the prophet described in this verse (John 1:19-22), and that he denied it. In Acts 3:18-22, Peter claimed that Jesus was the fulfillment of this promise.

Ezekiel 37:26-27

"I will make a covenant of peace with them, an everlasting covenant. I will give to them, increase their numbers, and set my Sanctuary among them forever. My dwelling place will be with them; I will be their God, and they will be my people." (CJB)

The "dwelling place" (Hebrew mishkan) recalls the wilderness tabernacle. The Sanctuary (Hebrew miqdash) points rather to the Temple, in particular the renewed Temple, which will occupy Ezekiel's attention in the last ch.s of 40-48.

Christianity believes that Ezekiel's Temple is more glorious than the Tabernacle of Moses (Exodus 25-40) and the Temple of Solomon (1 Kings 5-8), pointing forward to several beliefs:

  • (1) the glory in which God dwells with man in the Messiah (John 1:14 The Word became a human being and lived with us, and we saw his Sh'khinah (CJB));
  • (2) The Messiah's body is the Temple (John 2:19-21 Yeshua answered them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up again." The Judeans said, "It took 46 years to build this Temple, and you're going to raise it in three days?" But the "temple" he had spoken of was his body. (CJB));
  • (3) the messianic community as the Temple (1 Corinthians 3:16 Don't you know that you people are God's Temple and that God's Spirit lives in you?, Ephesians 2:20-22 You have been built on the foundation of the emissaries and the prophets, with the cornerstone being Yeshua the Messiah himself. In union with him the whole building is held together, and it is growing into a holy temple in union with the Lord. Yes, in union with him, you yourselves are being built together into a spiritual dwelling-place for God!, 1 Peter 2:5 yourselves, as living stones, are being built into a spiritual house to be cohanim set apart for God to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to him through Yeshua the Messiah. (CJB));
  • (4) the body of the individual believer (1 Corinthians 6:19 Or don't you know that your body is a Temple for the Ruach HaKodesh who lives inside you, whom you received from God? The fact is, you don't belong to yourselves (CJB));
  • (5) the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)[38]

Judaism holds that the Messiah has not yet arrived namely because of the belief that the Messianic Age has not started yet. Jews believe that the Messiah will completely change life on earth and that pain and suffering will be conquered, thus initiating the Kingdom of God and the Messianic Age on earth. Contrary to the Christian belief that the Kingdom of God is not worldly, most Jews hold that the Kingdom of God will be on earth. Jews hold that life on earth after Jesus has not changed profoundly enough for him to be considered the Messiah.[citation needed]

While Christians have cited the following as prophecies referencing the life, status, and legacy of Jesus, Jewish scholars maintain that these passages are not messianic prophecies and are based on mistranslations/misunderstanding of the Hebrew texts.[39]

Haggai 2:6-9

"6 For this is what ADONAI-Tzva'ot says: "It won't be long before one more time I will shake the heavens and the earth, the sea and the dry land;

7 and I will shake all the nations, so that the treasures of all the nations will flow in; and I will fill this house with glory," says ADONAI-Tzva'ot. 8 "The silver is mine, and the gold is mine," says ADONAI-Tzva'ot.

9 "The glory of this new house will surpass that of the old," says ADONAI-Tzva'ot, "and in this place I will grant shalom," says ADONAI-Tzva'ot.'" (CJB)

The Second Temple was to be filled with the glory of God and its glory would be superior to Solomon's temple despite the missing artifacts and the absence of sacred fire (God initially lighting up the altar Himself).

For some Christians, this prophecy is believed to be fulfilled in Jesus of Nazareth being present and teaching in Herod's renovated Temple and peace being granted by God for mankind in that place through the tearing of the veil of the Holy of Holies upon Christ's death. Furthermore, it is asserted that if Haggai's prophecy is to be held as true, it must have been accomplished before 70 AD since the Romans destroyed the Second Temple at that time.

On the other hand, many scholars, including evangelical Christians, understand the prophecy as being in reference to the physical splendor of the Temple (as implied by the context) and/or apply it to the yet future Third Temple.[40]

Hosea 11:1

"When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called my son."

In its original context, this text from Hosea referred to the deliverance of the people of Israel from bondage in Egypt.[41] The Gospel of Matthew applies it to the return from Egypt of Jesus and his family as a messianic prophecy.[42] “An angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and said, ‘Rise, take the child and his mother, and flee to Egypt, and remain there till I tell you; for Herod is about to search for the child to destroy him.’ And he rose and took the child and his mother by night, and departed to Egypt, and remained there until the death of Herod. This was to fulfill what the Lord had spoken by the prophet, ‘Out of Egypt have I called my son’” (Matthew 2: 13-15).

Isaiah 7:14

Isaiah 7:14 - Matthew 1:22-23 states "The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and they will call him Immanuel" — which means, "God with us". However the Jewish translation of that passage reads "Behold, the young woman [ha-almah in Hebrew] is with child and will bear a son and she will call his name Immanuel."[9] Judaism affirms that [ha-almah] ("young woman") does not refer to a virgin, and that had the Tanakh intended to refer to such, the specific Hebrew word for virgin [bethulah] would have been used. According to secular and Jewish scholarship, Isaiah chapter 7 when read in context, speaks of a prophecy made to the Jewish King Ahaz to allay his fears of two invading kings (those of Damascus and of Samaria) who were preparing to invade Jerusalem, about 600 years before Jesus’ birth. Isaiah 7:16: "For before the boy will know enough to refuse evil and choose good, the land whose two kings you dread will be forsaken." Also, the following chapter of Isaiah appears to describe the fulfillment of the prophecy, repeating that Israel and Syria will soon fall to Assyria, and mentioning again the name Immanuel (Isaiah 8: 1-8). Howard W. Clarke, the Professor Emeritus of Classics at the University of California, Santa Barbara, says Isaiah seems to be explicitly referring to a son of the Judean King Ahaz (ca. 735-715 BC) rather than to his mother as Matthew misinterprets it.[43]

Isaiah 8:23-9:1 (9:1-2)

The use of Isaiah 9:1 by the Gospel author of Matthew has led many Christian authors to cite its messianic applications.[44]

1“But there will be no more gloom for those who are now in anguish. In the past the land of Z'vulun and the land of Naftali were regarded lightly; but in the future he will honor the way to the lake, beyond the Yarden, Galil-of-the-Goyim. ”
2The people living in darkness
Have seen a great light;
Upon those living in the land that lies in the shadow of death,
Light has dawned. (CJB)

Matthew refers to this, since Jesus began preaching in Galilee: “Now when Jesus heard that John had been arrested, he withdrew into Galilee; and leaving Nazareth he went and dwelt in Capernaum by the sea, in the territory of Zebulon and Naphtali, that what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled: ‘The land of Zebulon and the land of Naphtali, toward the sea, across the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles – the people who sat in darkness have seen a great light, and for those who sat in the region and shadow of death light has dawned’” (Matthew 4: 15-16).

In Isaiah, this passage describes how Assyrian invaders are increasingly aggressive as they progress toward the sea, while Matthew 4:13-15 has re-interpreted the description as a prophecy stating that Jesus would progress (without any hint of becoming more aggressive) toward Galilee. While Matthew uses the Septuagint rendering of Isaiah, in the Masoretic text it refers to the region of the gentiles rather than Galilee of the nations, and it is likely that the presence of the word Galilee in the Septuagint is a translation error - the Hebrew word for region is galil which can easily be corrupted to galilee.

Isaiah 9:5 (9:6)

Most Christians believe that this verse refers to the birth of Jesus as the Messiah. The verse reads:

"For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; And the government shall rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace."Isaiah 9:5-6
"For a child is born unto us, a son is given unto us; and the government is upon his shoulder; and his name is called Pele-joez-el-gibbor-Abi-ad-sar-shalom; That the government may be increased, and of peace there be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to establish it, and to uphold it through justice and through righteousness from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts doth perform this."Isaiah 9:5-6

The word translated "wonderful" is actually a noun, meaning a "wonder". Another translation of that phrase would be "A wonder, a counselor is the mighty God, the everlasting father, prince of peace." Like the name "Immanuel," this name would describe God, not the person who carries the name. The word "is", is usually not stated in Hebrew. Rather,"is" is understood. For example, the words hakelev (the dog) and gadol (big), when joined into a sentence hakelev gadol means "the dog is big," even though no Hebrew word in that sentence represents the word "is." On the other hand, the Hebrew word "hu" (meaning he) is often used similarly to the word "is", so to say "A wonder, a counselor, is the mighty God..." one would probably say "Pele yo`ets hu el gibor...", inserting the word "hu". In any case, if this "name" is actually a sentence, it is a rather unnatural sentence by the standards of Biblical Hebrew.[citation needed]

This long name is the throne name of the royal child. Semitic names often consist of sentences that describe God; thus the name Isaiah in Hebrew means "Yahweh saves"; Hezekiah, "Yahweh strengthens"; in Akkadian, the name of the Babylonian king M'rodakh-Bal'adan (39:1) means "Marduk has provided an heir." These names do not describe that person who holds them but the god whom the parents worship.[45]

This verse is expressly applied to the Messiah in the Targum.[46]

Isaiah 11:12

"And he shall set up a banner for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth." Isaiah 11:12

Some commentators view this as an unfulfilled prophecy, arguing that the Jewish people have not all been gathered in Israel.[47] Some Christians refer to the foundation of the State of Israel as fulfillment of this prophecy.[48] Others argue that the fulfillment is that Jesus as Messiah brings all nations to himself (cf. 11:10 "Nations will seek his counsel / And his abode will be honored.") citing John 12:32 ("And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself.") and Paul in Romans 15:12 when he quotes Isaiah 11:10, emphasizing the inclusion of the gentiles into the people of God.[38]

Christians also believe that Isaiah 2:2 is to be understood in connection with Isaiah 11:10,12.

"In the days to come, The Mount of the Lord’s house Shall stand firm above the mountains And tower above the hills; And all the nations Shall gaze on it with joy." Isaiah 2:2

Christians believe that Jesus the Messiah is the ultimate "house" or dwelling place of God, as is told in John 1:14 ("And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory") and 2:19-21 ("Jesus answered them, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” The Jews then said, “It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and will you raise it up in three days?” But he was speaking about the temple of his body."). Through him the messianic community becomes a temple in 1 Corinthians 3:16 ("Do you not know that you all are God's temple and that God's Spirit dwells in you?"') and Ephesians 2:20-22 ("...built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, the Messiah Jesus himself being the cornerstone, in whom the whole structure, being joined together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord. In him you also are being built together into a dwelling place for God by the Spirit."). It is through the Messiah's exaltation all nations are drawn to him, as in Luke 24:47 ("...and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem.").[38]

Isaiah 53:5

Isaiah 53 is probably the most famous example claimed to be a messianic prophecy fulfilled by Jesus. It speaks of one known as the "suffering servant," who suffers because of the sins of others. Jesus is said to fulfill this prophecy through his death on the cross.[49] The following verse from Isaiah 53:5 is understood by Christians to speak of Jesus as the Messiah:

"But he was wounded because of our transgressions, he was crushed because of our iniquities: the chastisement of our welfare was upon him, and with his stripes we were healed." Isaiah 53:5 (JPS 1917 Edition)
"But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him, and with his stripes we are healed." Isaiah 53:5 (King James Version)

Modern scholars, as well as Rashi (1040–1105), believe that the 'suffering servant' is a reference to Israel,[50] specifically the Jewish people deported to Babylon.[51] However, in some of the most ancient Jewish writings, Isaiah 53:5 is applied to the Messiah. The verse is messianically interpreted in the Midrash on Samuel.[52][Need quotation to verify]

One of the first claims in the New Testament that Isaiah 53 is a prophecy of Jesus comes from the Book of Acts, which describes a scene in which God commands Philip the Apostle to approach an Ethiopian eunuch who is sitting in a chariot, reading aloud to himself from the Book of Isaiah. The eunuch comments that he does not understand what he is reading (Isaiah 53) and Philip explains to him that the passage refers to Jesus: "And the eunuch answered Philip, and said, I pray thee, of whom speaketh the prophet this? Of himself, or of some other man? Then Philip opened his mouth, and began at the same scripture, and preached unto him Jesus." This has been the standard Christian interpretation of the passage since Apostolic times.[53]

Jeremiah 31:15

Matthew 2:17-18 gives the killing of innocents by Herod as the fulfillment of a prophecy spoken of in Jeremiah:

Then what was said through the prophet Jeremiah was fulfilled:
A voice is heard in Ramah,
weeping and great mourning,
Rachel weeping for her children
and refusing to be comforted,
because they are no more.

In Jeremiah 31:15, the phrase "because her children are no more" refers to the captivity of Rachel's children in Assyria. The subsequent verses describe their return to Israel.[54]

Micah 5:2 (Micah 5:1 in Hebrew)

"But thou, Beth-lehem Ephrathah, which art little to be among the thousands of Judah, out of thee shall one come forth unto Me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth are from of old, from ancient days." (Micah 5:1)

A verse near the end of Micah's prophecy on the Babylonian captivity has been interpreted by Christian apologists as a prophecy that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem.[55]

The verse describes the clan of Bethlehem, who was the son of Caleb's second wife, Ephrathah. (1 Chr. 2:18, 2:50-52, 4:4) Bethlehem Ephrathah is the town and clan from which king David was born,[56] and this passage refers to the future birth of a new Davidic heir.[57]

Although the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke give different accounts of the birth of Jesus, both place the birth in Bethlehem.[58] The Gospel of Matthew describes Herod the Great as asking the chief priests and scribes of Jerusalem where the Messiah was to be born. They respond by quoting Micah, "In Beit-Lechem of Y'hudah," they replied, "because the prophet wrote, 'And you, Beit-Lechem in the land of Y'hudah, are by no means the least among the rulers of Y'hudah; for from you will come a Ruler who will shepherd my people Isra'el.'" (Matt 2:4-6)

The idea that Bethlehem was to be the birthplace of the Messiah appears in no Jewish source before the 4th century CE.[59] Jewish tradition appears to have emphasised the idea that the birthplace of the Messiah was not known.[60]

Many modern scholars consider the birth stories as inventions by the Gospel writers, created to glorify Jesus and present his birth as the fulfillment of prophecy.[61][62] However since the birth in Bethlehem is one of the few common elements in the Gospel accounts, some scholars believe that both writers were drawing on an existing Christian tradition.[63]


Some portions of the Psalms are considered prophetic in Judaism, even though they are listed among the Ketuvim (Writings) and not the Nevi'im (Prophets).

The words Messiah and Christ mean "anointed one". In ancient times Jewish leaders were anointed with olive oil when they assumed their position (e.g. David, Saul, Isaac, Jacob). And "Messiah" is used as a name for kings in the Hebrew Bible: in 2Samuel 1:14 David finds King Saul's killer and asks, "Why were you not afraid to lift your hand to destroy the LORD's anointed?"

In many Psalms, whose authorship are traditionally ascribed to King David (i.e. Messiah David), the author writes about his life in third person, referring to himself as "the/God's/your messiah" while clearly discussing his military exploits. Thus it can be argued that many of the portions that are asserted to be prophetic Psalms may not be. Psalm 2, spoken of below, can be argued to be about David and not Jesus. Psalms 2:6 says "I have installed [past tense] my King on Zion, my holy hill [Jerusalem, David's capital that he captured in battle in 1 Samuel]." Psalms 2:7 says, "I [David, the author] will proclaim the decree of the LORD: He said to me [David, the person to whom God was speaking], 'You [David] are my Son; today I have become your [adopted] Father.'" If the passage was speaking about a begotten son then that person would have been born the son of that father; he wouldn't have to become it at some later point after birth. (Throughout the Bible it is common to call saints and angels the sons or children of God.)

Psalm 2

"Why do the nations conspire, and the peoples plot in vain? 2. The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD and his Anointed, saying, 3. 'Let us burst their bonds asunder, and cast their cords from us.' 4. He who sits in the heavens laughs; the LORD has them in derision. 5. Then he will speak to them in his wrath, and terrify them in his fury, saying, 6. 'I have set my king on Zion, my holy hill." 7. I will tell of the decree of the LORD: He said to me, 'You are my son, today I have begotten you. 8. Ask of me, and I will make the nations your heritage, and the ends of the earth your possession. 9. You shall break them with a rod of iron, and dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel'" (Psalm 2: 1-9).

The dating of Psalm 2 is argued among scholars, but one suggestion is that it was composed under the Hasmonean dynasty (140-37BC.[64] The authors of Acts and the Epistle to the Hebrews interpreted it as relating to Christ.

Verse 2. “Anointed” – in Hebrew mashiah, “anointed”; in Greek christos, whence English Messiah and Christ.

Verse 7. The LORD is the messiah’s father.

As for kings and rulers setting themselves against the Christ, both Herod and Pontius Pilate set themselves against Jesus, whom God had anointed, according to Acts of the Apostles 4: 25-27.

Acts 13: 33 interprets Jesus’ rising from the dead as confirmation of verse 7 (“You are my son, today I have begotten you”).

Hebrews 1: 5 employs verse 7 in order to argue that Jesus is superior to the angels, i.e., Jesus is superior as a mediator between God and man. “For to what angel did God ever say, Thou art my Son, today I have begotten thee?”

Texts vary in the exact wording of the phrase beginning Psalm 2:12, with "kiss his foot", and "kiss the Son" being most common in various languages for centuries. Strong's shows the widely known word "bar," of apparent Chaldean origin but still in common use in Hebrew today as "son," as meaning "heir" or "son." Thus, with this word and the context there is an obvious reverence for royalty which is being portrayed in various manners. The New Testament era translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint, gives another variation, literally "accept correction." All of these variations express the same concept- to show reverence and submission to the LORD and his anointed.

Psalm 16

The interpretation of Psalm 16 as a messanic prophecy is common among Christian evangelical hermeneutics.[65] “I bless the Lord who has given me understanding, because even in the night, my heart warns me. I keep the Lord always within my sight; for he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved. For this reason my heart is glad and my soul rejoices; moreover, my body also will rest secure, for thou wilt not leave my soul in the abode of the dead, nor permit thy holy one to see corruption. Thou wilt show me the path of life, the fullness of joys in thy presence, and delights at thy right hand forever” (verses 7-11).

According to the preaching of Peter, this prophecy is about the messiah’s triumph over death, i.e., the resurrection of Jesus.

“God raised Jesus up, having loosed the pangs of death, because it was not possible for him to be held by it. For David says concerning him, ‘I saw the Lord always before me, for he is at my right hand that I may not be shaken… For thou wilt not abandon my soul to Hades, nor let thy Holy One see corruption… Thou wilt make me full of gladness with thy presence.’ Brethren, I may say to you confidently of the patriarch David that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. Being therefore a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that he would set one of his descendants upon his throne, he foresaw and spoke of the resurrection of the Christ, that he was not abandoned to Hades, nor did his flesh see corruption. This Jesus God raised up, and we are all witnesses of it” (Acts 2: 24-32).

Also of note is what Paul said in the synagogue at Antioch. “And as for the fact that he raised him from the dead, no more to return to corruption, he spoke in this way, ‘I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.’ Therefore he also says in another psalm, ‘Thou wilt not let thy Holy One see corruption.’ For David, after he had served the counsel of God in his own generation, fell asleep, and saw corruption; but he whom God raised up saw no corruption” (Acts 13: 34-37).

Psalm 22

Two of the Gospels (Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34) quote Jesus as speaking these words from the cross;[66]

"From the cross, Jesus cried with a loud voice, “Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?” which means, “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?”

The other two canonical Gospels give different accounts of the words of Jesus. Luke 23:46 quotes Psalm 31:5 ("Into your hands I commit my spirit") while John has Jesus say "It is finished" (John 19:30). Some scholars see this as evidence that the words of Jesus were not part of a pre-Gospel Passion narrative, but were added later by the Gospel writers.[67]

In most Hebrew manuscripts, such as the Masoretic, Psalm 22:16 (verse 17 in the Hebrew verse numbering) reads כארי ידי ורגלי ("like a lion my hands and my feet").[68][unreliable source?] Many Christians translate this as "they have pierced my hands and my feet", based on the Septuagint and Syriac manuscripts. However, the phrase, if translated as "like a lion my hands and my feet" bears no coherent meaning. There remains some controversy about this translation. It asserted that the Dead Sea Scrolls lend considerable weight to the translation as "They have pierced my hands and my feet",[69] although this view is not uncontested.[70]

Psalm 34

"Many are the afflictions of the just man; but the Lord delivers him from all of them. He guards all his bones: not even one of them shall be broken." (Psalms 34:20)

Some Christian writers[who?] have described Psalm 34:20 as a messianic prophecy.[71] In its account of the crucifixion of Jesus, the Gospel of John interprets it as a prophecy (John 19:36) and presents some of the details as fulfillment.

“So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first, and of the other who had been crucified with Jesus; but when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water… For these things took place that the scripture might be fulfilled, ‘Not a bone of him shall be broken.’ And again another scripture says, ‘They shall look on him whom they have pierced’” (John 19:32-37)

Psalm 69

"They gave me also gall for my meat; and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink"

Christians believe that this verse refers to Jesus' time on the cross in which he was given a sponge soaked in vinegar to drink, as seen in Matthew 27:34, Mark 15:23, and John 19:29.[72]

Psalm 110

Christian authors have interpreted Psalm 110 as a messianic passage in light of several New Testament passages.[73]

“A psalm of David.

1. The Lord says to my lord: ‘Sit at my right hand, till I make your enemies your footstool.’
2. The Lord sends forth from Zion your mighty sceptre: ‘Rule in the midst of your foes!
3. With you is sovereignty in the splendor of holiness on the day of your birth: before the morning star, like the dew, I have begotten you.’
4. The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind: ‘You are a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.’
5. The Lord is at your right hand; he will shatter kings on the day of his wrath.
6. He will execute judgment among the nations, filling them with corpses; he will crush heads over the wide earth.
7. He will drink from the brook by the way; therefore he will lift up his head.”

Verse 1. God speaks to David. The first instance of "The LORD (Hebrew: YHWH)" in this verse is a translation of the Hebrew name of God, Yahweh. The second instance of "my lord (Hebrew: ADONI)" is David, from the viewpoint of the Psalmist. The opening phrase of Psalm 110 is literally translated as "Regarding David, a psalm," indicating that the psalm is "of" or "about" King David, not written by him. The same introduction (τω δαυιδ ψαλμος) is used in the LXX version of Psalm 110 (which is Psalm 109 in the Greek text).[74]

In the New Testament, the gospel writers leave out the portion "regarding David, a psalm" and reinterprets the remaining out of context verse as a messainic prophecy: “while the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them a question, saying, ‘What do you think of the Christ? Whose son is he?’ They said to him, ‘The son of David.’ He said to them, ‘How is it then that David in the Spirit calls him Lord, saying, The Lord said to my Lord: Sit at my right hand, till I put thy enemies under thy feet? If David thus calls him Lord, how is he his son?’ And no one was able to answer him a word” (Matthew 22: 41-46). The remaining portion of this verse speaks of how David shall be seated at God's right hand, with his enemies thoroughly defeated. Although Hebrew has no capital letters, the Hebrew translation of that passage reads "The Lord said to my lord" indicating that it is not speaking of God.[75]

"A royal psalm(see Ps.2 intro). It is quite difficult because v.3 is totally obscure, and the psalm speakers often. In Christain interpretaion, it is understood as a reference to Jesus, as a messianic and sometimes eschatological psalm; Radak polemicizes against this veiw" 1. Here God is speaking to the king,called my lord; Perhaps these are the words spoken by a prophet. The king is very proximate to God, in a position of privilege, imagined as being on His right hand in the divine council. The second-in-command was seated to the right of the king in the ancient Near East. Such images are rear in psalms, but see Ps45:7. If the king trods on the back of his enemies (see Josh. 10:24), they poetically become his "Footstool" 2. In contrast to v.1, God is spoken of in the third person. The Zion tridition (see Isa. 2:1-4; 60:1-22)and royal tridition are here connected. While v.1-2 express the great power of the king, they also emphisize it comes from God" (YHWH).[76]

II Samuel 7:14

Hebrews 1:5 quotes this verse as, "I will be his Father, and he will be my Son.". However, the verse doesn’t end with the phrase quoted in the New Testament, but continues: "When he does wrong, I will punish him with the rod of men, with floggings inflicted by men." This cannot possibly fit the Christian Bible’s view of a sinless Jesus.[77] The Old Testament verse is referring to Solomon.[9][78]

Wisdom of Solomon 2:12-20

The Wisdom of Solomon is one of the Deuterocanonical books of the Hebrew Bible. The Deuterocanonical books are considered canonical by Catholics, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox, but are considered non-canonical by Jews and Protestants.

"Let us lie in wait for the righteous man, because he is inconvenient to us and opposes our actions; he reproaches us for sins against the law, and accuses us of sins against our training. He professes to have knowledge of God, and calls himself a child of the Lord. He became to us a reproof of our thoughts; the very sight of him is a burden to us, because his manner of life is unlike that of others, and his ways are strange. We are considered by him as something base, and he avoids our ways as unclean; he calls the last end of the righteous happy, and boasts that God is his father. Let us see if his words are true, and let us test what will happen at the end of his life; for if the righteous man is God's son, he will help him, and will deliver him from the hand of his adversaries. Let us test him with insult and torture, that we may find out how gentle he is, and make trial of his forbearance. Let us condemn him to a shameful death, for, according to what he says, he will be protected".

Zechariah 9:9

Christian authors have interpreted Zechariah 9:9 as a prophecy of an act of messianic self-humiliation.[79]

"Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout in triumph, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your king is coming to you; He is just and endowed with salvation, Humble, and mounted on a donkey, Even on a colt, the foal of a donkey." Zec 9:9

The Gospel of John links this verse to the account of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem: "took the branches of the palm trees and went out to meet Him, and began to shout, “Hosanna! BLESSED IS HE WHO COMES IN THE NAME OF THE LORD, even the King of Israel.” Jesus, finding a young donkey, sat on it; as it is written, “FEAR NOT, DAUGHTER OF ZION; BEHOLD, YOUR KING IS COMING, SEATED ON A DONKEY’S COLT.” " John 12:13-15

The Synoptic Gospels make clear that Jesus arranged this event, thus consciously fulfilling the prophecy.[80]

The Gospel of Matthew describes Jesus' triumphant entry on Palm Sunday as a fulfillment of this verse in Zechariah. Matthew describes the prophecy in terms of a colt and a separate donkey, whereas the original only mentions the colt; the reference in Zechariah is a Jewish parallelism referring only to a single animal, and the gospels of Mark, Luke, and John state Jesus sent his disciples after only one animal.[81] Several explanations have been suggested, such as that Matthew misread the original, the existence of the foal is implied, or he wanted to create a deliberate echo of a reference in 2 Samuel 16:1-4, where there are two asses for David's household to ride on.[82]

In the most ancient Jewish writings Zechariah 9:9 is applied to the Messiah.[citation needed] According to the Talmud, so firm was the belief in the ass on which the Messiah is to ride that "if anyone saw an ass in his dream, he will see salvation".[83][Need quotation to verify] The verse is also Messianically quoted in Sanh. 98 a, in Pirqé de R. Eliez. c. 31, and in several of the Midrashim.[citation needed]

Zechariah 12:10

Zechariah 12:10 is another verse commonly cited by Christian authors as a messianic prophecy fulfilled by Jesus.[84]

"And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplication; and they shall look unto Me because they have thrust him through; and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his first-born." Zec 12:10

In some of the most ancient Jewish writings, Zechariah 12:10 is applied to the Messiah ben Joseph in the Talmud,[85][Need quotation to verify] and so is verse 12 ("The land will wail, each family by itself: The family of the House of David by themselves, and their women by themselves; the family of the House of Nathan by themselves, and their women by themselves"), there being, however, a difference of opinion whether the mourning is caused by the death of the Messiah ben Joseph, or else on account of the evil concupiscence (Yetzer hara).[citation needed]

The Gospel of John makes reference to this prophecy when referring to the crucifixion of Jesus, as can be seen in the following account: "So the soldiers came, and broke the legs of the first man and of the other who was crucified with Him; but coming to Jesus, when they saw that He was already dead, they did not break His legs. But one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out. And he who has seen has testified, and his testimony is true; and he knows that he is telling the truth, so that you also may believe. For these things came to pass to fulfill the Scripture, “NOT A BONE OF HIM SHALL BE BROKEN.” And again another Scripture says, “THEY SHALL LOOK ON HIM WHOM THEY PIERCED.” " John 19:32-37

Verses read as Davidic line prophecies

Verses cited as unfulfilled prophecies

Rule at a time when the Jews follow God's commandments

  • He will rule at a time when the Jewish people will observe God's commandments - "My servant David shall be king over them; and they shall all have one shepherd. They shall follow My ordinances and be careful to observe My statutes." (Ezekiel 37:24)[47]

Rule at a time when everybody believes in God

  • He will rule at a time when all people will come to acknowledge and serve one God - "And it shall come to pass that from one new moon to another and from one Sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before Me, says the Lord" (Isaiah 66:23)[47]

Debate about claims of prophecy fulfilment in the New Testament

Among believers in Christianity, opinion varies as to which Old Testament passages are messianic prophecies and which are not, and whether the prophecies they claim to have been fulfilled are intended to be prophecies at all. The authors of these Old Testament "prophecies" often appear to be describing events that had already occurred. For example, the New Testament verse Matthew 2:14 states, "So he got up, took the child and his mother during the night and left for Egypt, 15 where he stayed until the death of Herod. And so was fulfilled what the Lord had said through the prophet: 'Out of Egypt I called my son.'" This is referring to the Old Testament verse Hosea 11:1. However, that passage reads, "When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called my son." Skeptics say that the Hosea passage clearly is talking about a historical event and therefore the passage clearly is not a prophecy.

According to modern scholarship, the suffering servant described in Isaiah chapter 53 is actually the Jewish people.

According to some, the rabbinic response, e.g., Rashi and Maimonides, is that although the suffering servant passage clearly is prophetic and even if Psalm 22 is prophetic, the Messiah has not come yet, therefore, the passages could not possibly be talking about Jesus. As noted above, there is some controversy about the phrase "they have pierced my hands and my feet".


Different explanations are offered for why these types of passages should be considered prophecies, depending on the particular passage.

The Pesher interpretation method

Some[86] have pointed out that at the time of Jesus of Nazareth there was a Jewish method of biblical interpretation known as pesher in Hebrew.[citation needed] It was a common approach to the Hebrew Bible by the communities at Qumran.[citation needed] It was a widely known and widely accepted interpretive technique that the Jewish writers of the New Testament would have known well.[citation needed] In modern Christian theological terminology, this approach involves typology. When a New Testament author describes something as a prophecy that is not usually regarded as a prophecy, he is saying essentially, "This event is an example of the type of thing that this Old Testament passage is referring to."

The Remez interpretation method

Jews and Christians tend to ask different questions about the Bible. One example cited is that a common question of Jewish biblical scholars is, "Why is this passage next to this passage?"

Jewish interpretive techniques often look for a "hint" at a deeper meaning; this "hint" is known as remez in Hebrew. Because the New Testament writers were fluent in biblical Hebrew, sometimes they are using a play on Hebrew words in the original Tanach that is not obvious to Greek scholars and translators or to English-speaking readers. One example is Matthew saying at Matthew 2:23 "and he went and lived in a town called Nazareth. So was fulfilled what was said through the prophets: 'He will be called a Nazarene.'" The words "Nazareth" and "Nazarene" do not occur in the Old Testament. Juster opines that Matthew is hinting at two Hebrew words: the root n-z-r, meaning "branch", and "Nazarite".

Another possible explanation offered is that such a prophecy once existed in the biblical texts but was lost. This theory is supported by the fact that such a verse exists in a copy of Samuel found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.[citation needed]

See also


  1. ^ The Jewish Response to Missionaries[dead link] By Rab. Aryeh Kaplan; "The Hebrew word for 'Messiah' is 'Mashiach'. The literal and proper translation of this word is “anointed,” which refers to a ritual of anointing and consecrating someone or something with oil." Citing The Hebrew Roots of the word “Messiah”, p.29; Fourth Edition. Revised. 2001 Jews for Judaism International Inc.
  2. ^ The Real Messiah: A Jewish Response to Missionaries[dead link] By Rab. Aryeh Kaplan; "To the Jew, the Messiah has a most important mission, namely to bring the world back to G-d, and make it a place of peace, justice and harmony. When Jesus failed to accomplish this, the early Christians had to radically alter the very concept of the Messiah. This, in turn, transformed Christianity from another Jewish Messianic sect into a religion that is quite alien to many basic Jewish teachings." Citing From Messiah to Christ, p.14; 1976 by National Conference of Synagogue Youth.
  3. ^ Isaiah 1:26
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Jewish Messiah, Moshiach/Mashiach - What is the Jewish Belief About ‘The End of Days’?
  5. ^ Isaiah 2:4
  6. ^ Isaiah 2:17
  7. ^ a b c Messiah Truth: A Jewish Response to Missionary Groups
  8. ^ Isaiah 11:1
  9. ^ a b c d e f g [1][dead link] English Handbook Page 34
  10. ^ 1 Chron. 22:8-10
  11. ^ Isaiah 11:2
  12. ^ Isaiah 11:4
  13. ^ Isaiah 11:9
  14. ^ Isaiah 11:10
  15. ^ Isaiah 11:12
  16. ^ a b Isaiah 25:8
  17. ^ Isaiah 26:19
  18. ^ Isaiah 51:11
  19. ^ Isaiah 52:7
  20. ^ Isaiah 52:13-53:5
  21. ^ Zechariah 8:23
  22. ^ Ezekiel 16:55
  23. ^ Ezekiel 39:9
  24. ^ Ezekiel 40
  25. ^ Micah 4:1
  26. ^ Isaiah 11:12, Isaiah 27:12-13
  27. ^ Isaiah 2:4, Isaiah 11:6, Micah 4:3
  28. ^ Isaiah 11:9, Isaiah 40:5, Zephaniah 3:9
  29. ^ Zephaniah 3:9
  30. ^ Psalms 37:4
  31. ^ Isaiah 51:3, Amos 9:13-15, Ezekiel 36:29-30, Isaiah 11:6-9
  32. ^ Tim Meadowcroft Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 120, No. 3 (Autumn, 2001) Requires subscription for full content
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia Online
  36. ^ New American Bible
  37. ^ ESV Study Bible (commentary on Deuteronomy 18.15-19)
  38. ^ a b c ESV Study Bible; "History of Salvation in the OT"
  39. ^ Why Don't Jews Believe In Jesus | The difference between Judaism and Christianity
  40. ^ J. Cadrl Laney, Answers to Tough Questions from Every Book of the Bible A Survey of Problem Passages and Issues from Every Book of the Bible, page 174.
  41. ^ David A. DeSilva, An Introduction to the New Testament, InterVarsity Press, 2004, page 249.
  42. ^ John H. Sailhamer Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 44/1 (March 2001)[dead link]
  43. ^ Howard Clarke, The Gospel of Matthew and its readers, Indiana University Press, p.5
  44. ^ J. M. Powis Smith American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 40, No. 4 (Jul., 1924) Requires subscription for full content
  45. ^ The Jewish Study Bible (Oxford Press); commentary on Isaiah 9.5
  46. ^ Alfred Edersheim The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah 1883 "and there is a very curious comment in Debarim R. 1 (ed. Warsh., p. 4a) in connection with a Haggadic discussion of Genesis 43:14, which, however fanciful, makes a Messianic application of this passage - also in Bemidbar R. 11." Philologos | The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah | Appendix 9
  47. ^ a b c Jews for Judaism: Messiah: The Criteria
  48. ^ Farzana Hassan, Prophecy and the Fundamentalist Quest: An Integrative Study of Christian and Muslim Apocalyptic Religion (McFarland, 2008), page 26-27.
  49. ^ George Dahl Journal of Biblical Literature Vol. 57, No. 1 (Mar., 1938) requires subscription for full content
  50. ^ Joel E. Rembaum Harvard Theological Review Vol. 75, No. 3 (Jul., 1982) requires subscription for full content
  51. ^ Peter Stuhlmacher, "Jesus' Readiness to Suffer and His Understanding of His Death", in James D. G. Dunn, Scot McKnight (editors), The historical Jesus in recent research (Eisenbrauns, 2005), page 397.
  52. ^ ed. Lemberg, p. 45a, last line
  53. ^ The Evangelist, Luke (circa 85AD). Acts of the Apostles. Gutenberg. pp. 8:33–34. 
  54. ^ Jeremiah 31:16-17, 23
  55. ^ W. Muss-Arnolt Biblical World, Vol. 9, No. 6 (Jun., 1897) Requires subscription for full content
  56. ^ 1 Samuel 16.18-23
  57. ^ Joseph A. Fitzmyer, The One who is to Come, (Eerdmans, 2007), page 53.
  58. ^ Raymond E. Brown, The Birth of the Messiah, Anchor Bible (1999), page 36.
  59. ^ Edwin D. Freed, The Stories of Jesus' Birth, (Continuum International, 2004), page 79.
  60. ^ Edwin D Freed, The Stories of Jesus' Birth, (Continuum International, 2004), page 79; see John 7:26-27
  61. ^ Geza Vermes, The Nativity: History and Legend, London, Penguin, 2006, p22.
  62. ^ E. P. Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, Penguin, 1993, p.85.
  63. ^ Edwin D. Freed, The Stories of Jesus' Birth, (Continuum International, 2004), page 78.
  64. ^ Marco Treves Vetus Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 1 (Jan., 1965) Requires subscription for full content
  65. ^ Darrell L. Bock Bibliotheca Sacra 142 (July, 1985)
  66. ^ Mark H. Heinemann BIBLIOTHECA SACRA 147 (July 1990)
  67. ^ Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, (Eerdmans, 2000), page 1012.
  68. ^ Disciples Study Bible (NIV)
  69. ^ The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible, Translated and with commentary by Martin Abegg Jr., Peter Flint and Eugene Ulrich. (San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1999
  70. ^ Psalm 22:17: circling around the problem again. Kristin M. Swenson. Journal of Biblical Literature. 123.4 (Winter 2004) p640.
  71. ^ Ray Pritchard What A Christian Believes: An Easy to Read Guide to Understanding chapter 3 Crossway Books ISBN 1-58134-016-8
  72. ^ James Montgomery Boice and Philip Graham Ryken The Heart of the Cross pg 13 Crossway Books ISBN 1-58134-678-6
  73. ^ Herbert W. Bateman IV 'Psalm 110'. Bibliotheca Sacra 149 (Oct. 1992)
  74. ^ Online Greek OT (Septuagint/LXX) UTF8 Bible. Psalms Chapter 109:1-7
  75. ^ Outreach Judaism - responds directly to the issues raised by missionaries and cults. Responds to Jews For Jesus
  76. ^ The Jewish Study Bible: Featuring The Jewish Publications Society Tanakh Translation Oxford University Press / 2004
  77. ^ 2 Cor. 5:21, 1 Peter 2:21-22
  78. ^ 1 Chronicles 22:9-10
  79. ^ George Livingstone Robinson American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 12, No. 1/2 (Oct., 1895 - Jan., 1896) Requires subscription for full content
  80. ^ D. A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1991), page 433.
  81. ^ Mark 11:1-7, Luke 19:30-35, John 12: 14-15
  82. ^ Allison, Dale C. (2004). Matthew: a shorter commentary. Continuum International. pp. 344+345. 
  83. ^ Ber. 56b
  84. ^ Richard H. Hiers Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 90, No. 1 (Mar., 1971) Requires subscription for full content
  85. ^ Sukk. 52a
  86. ^ Robert L.Thomas, Evangelical Hermeneutics: The New Verses the Old,Kregel Academic (2002), page 256 citing Longenecker, Biblical Exegesis, 38.

Further reading

  • Herbert Lockyer All the Messianic Prophecies of the Bible Zondervan 1988 ISBN 0-310-28091-5
  • Nelson Reference Guides Find It Fast Messianic Prophecies Fulfilled In Jesus Christ Nelson Reference 2001 ISBN 0-7852-4754-8
  • Charles A. Briggs Messianic Prophecy: The Prediction of the Fulfilment of Redemption Through the Messiah Wipf & Stock Publishers 2005 ISBN 1-59752-292-9
  • Edward Riehm Messianic Prophecy: Its Origins, Historical Growth and Relation to New Testament Fulfillment Kessinger Publishing 2006 ISBN 1-4254-8411-5
  • Aaron Kligerman Old Testament Messianic Prophecy Zondervan 1957 ASIN B000GSNPMQ
  • Michael F. Bird, Are You the One Who Is to Come? Baker Academic 2008.

External links

Jewish analysis

Evangelical Christian analysis

Skeptical and Critical analysis

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