Taxonomy of the Euphorbiaceae

Taxonomy of the Euphorbiaceae

Here is a full taxonomy of the family Euphorbiaceae, according to the most recent molecular research Fact|date=February 2007. This complex family previously comprising 5 subfamilies:Fact|date=May 2007 the Acalyphoideae, the Crotonoideae, the Euphorbioideae, the Phyllanthoideae and the Oldfieldioideae. The 3 first ones are uni-ovulate families while the 2 last one are bi-ovulate.

Now the Euphorbiaceae has been split into 5 families:Fact|date=May 2007 The 3 uni-ovulate subfamilies have become the Euphorbiaceae in the strict sense, with the tribe Galearieae in the Acalyphoideae forming the most of the family Pandaceae. The bi-ovulate subfamily Phyllanthoideae has become the family Phyllanthaceae, with the tribe Drypeteae as family Putranjivaceae and the tribe Centroplaceae part of the Pandaceae. The other bi-ovulate subfamily Oldfieldioideae has become the Picrodendraceae.

ubfamily Acalyphoideae

Tribe Acalypheae

There are 12 subtribes and 32 genera:

:Subtribe Acalyphinae::"Acalypha" (also "Acalyphes", "Acalyphopsis", "Calyptrospatha", "Caturus", "Corythea", "Cupameni", "Galurus", "Gymnalypha", "Linostachys", "Mercuriastrum", "Odonteilema", "Paracelsea", "Ricinocarpus", "Schizogyne", "Usteria")

:Subtribe Adrianinae::"Adriana" (also "Meialisa", "Trachycaryon")

:Subtribe Claoxylinae::"Claoxylon" (also "Erythrochilus", "Erythrochylus")::"Claoxylopsis"::"Discoclaoxylon"::"Erythrococca" (also "Athroandra", "Autrandra", "Chloropatane", "Deflersia", "Poggeophyton", "Rivinoides")::"Micrococca"

:Subtribe Cleidiinae::"Cleidion" (also "Lasiostyles", "Psilostachys", "Redia", "Tetraglossa")::"Sampantaea"::"Wetria" (also "Pseudotrewia")

:Subtribe Dysopsidinae::"Dysopsis" (also "Mirabellia", "Molina")

:Subtribe Lasiococcinae::"Clonostylis"::"Homonoia (also called "Haematospermum", "Lumanaja"] )::"Lasiococca"::"Spathiostemon" (also "Polydragma")

:Subtribe Lobaniliinae::"Lobanilia"

:Subtribe Macaranginae::"Macaranga" (also "Adenoceras", "Mappa", "Mecostylis", "Pachystemon", "Panopia", "Phocea", "Tanarius")

:Subtribe Mareyinae::"Mareya"::"Mareyopsis"

:Subtribe Mercurialinae::"Mercurialis" (also "Cynocrambe", "Discoplis", "Synema")::"Leidesia"::"Seidelia"

:Subtribe Ricininae::"Ricinus" - castor bean

:Subtribe Rottlerinae::"Avellanita"::"Coccoceras"::"Cordemoya" (also "Boutonia")::"Deuteromallotus"::"Mallotus" (also "Aconceveibum", "Axenfeldia", "Coelodiscus", "Diplochlamys", "Echinocroton", "Echinus", "Hancea", "Lasipana", "Plagianthera", "Rottlera","Stylanthus")::"Neotrewia"::"Octospermum"::"Rockinghamia"::"Trewia" (also "Canschi", "Trevia")

Tribe Adelieae

There are 5 genera:

::"Adelia" (also "Ricinella")::"Crotonogynopsis"::"Enriquebeltrania" (also "Beltrania")::"Lasiocroton"::"Leucocroton"

Tribe Agrostistachydeae

There are 4 genera:::"Agrostistachys" (also "Heterocalyx", "Sarcoclinium")::"Chondrostylis" (also "Kunstlerodendron")::"Cyttaranthus"::"Pseudagrostistachys"

Tribe Alchorneae

There are 2 subtribes and 7 genera:

:Subtribe Alchorneinae::"Alchornea" (also "Bleekeria", "Cladodes", "Hermesia", "Lepidoturus", "Schousboea", "Stipellaria")::"Aparisthmium"::"Bocquillonia" (also "Ramelia")::"Orfilea" (also "Diderotia", "Laurembergia")

:Subtribe Conceveibinae::"Conceveiba" (also "Conceveibastrum", "Conceveibum", "Veconcibea")::"Gavarretia"::"Polyandra"

Tribe Ampereae

There are 2 genera:::"Amperea" (also "Leptomeria")::"Monotaxis" (also "Hippocrepandra", "Reissipa")

Tribe Bernardieae

There are 6 genera:::"Adenophaedra"::"Amyrea"::"Bernardia" (also "Alevia", "Bernarda", "Bernhardia", "Bivonia", "Passaea", "Phaedra", "Polyboea", "Traganthus", "Tyria")::"Discocleidion"::"Necepsia" (also "Neopalissya", "Palissya")::"Paranecepsia"

Tribe Caryodendreae

There are 3 genera:::"Alchorneopsis"::"Caryodendron" (also "Centrodiscus")::"Discoglypremna"

Tribe Chaetocarpeae

This tribe has 2 genera:::"Chaetocarpus" (also "Gaedawakka", "Mettenia", "Neochevaliera", "Regnaldia")::"Trigonopleura" (also "Peniculifera")

Tribe Cheiloseae

There are 2 genera:::"Cheilosa"::"Neoscortechinia" (also "Alcineanthus", "Scortechinia")

Tribe Chrozophoreae

This tribe has 4 subtribes and 12 genera:

:Subtribe Chrozophorinae::"Chrozophora" (also "Crossophora", "Crozophora", "Ricinoides", "Tournesol", "Tournesolia")

:Subtribe Ditaxinae::"Argythamnia" (also "Argithamnia", "Argothamnia", "Argyrothamnia", "Argytamnia", "Odotalon", "Serophyton")::"Caperonia" (also "Acanthopyxis", "Androphoranthus", "Cavanilla", "Lepidococea", "Meterana")::"Chiropetalum" (also "Aonikena", "Desfontaena", "Desfontaina", "Desfontainea")::"Ditaxis" (also "Aphora", "Paxiuscula", "Stenonia")::"Philyra" (also "Phyllera")

:Subtribe Doryxylinae::"Doryxylon" (also "Mercadoa", "Sumbavia")::"Melanolepis"::"Sumbaviopsis" (also "Adisa", "Adisca")::"Thyrsanthera"

:Subtribe Speranskiinae::"Speranskia"

Tribe Clutieae

There are 2 genera:::"Clutia" (also "Altora", "Cluytia", "Clytia")::"Kleinodendron"

Tribe Dicoelieae

This tribe has one genus:::"Dicoelia"

Tribe Epiprineae

There are 2 subtribes and 9 genera:

:Subtribe Epiprininae::"Adenochlaena" (also "Niedenzua", "Centrostylis")::"Cephalocroton"::"Cephalocrotonopsis"::"Cladogynos" (also "Adenogynum", "Baprea", "Chloradenia")::"Cleidiocarpon" (also "Sinopimelodendron")::"Epiprinus"::"Koilodepas" (also "Caelodepas", "Calpigyne", "Coelodepas", "Nephrostylus")::"Symphyllia"

:Subtribe Cephalomappinae::"Cephalomappa" (also "Muricococcum")

Tribe Erismantheae

There are 3 genera:::"Erismanthus"::"Moultonianthus"::"Syndyophyllum"

Tribe Omphaleae

This tribe only has 1 genus:::"Omphalea" (also "Duchola", "Hebecocca", "Hecatea", "Neomphalea", "Omphalandria", "Ronnowia")

Tribe Pereae

There is only 1 genus:::"Pera"

Tribe Plukenetieae

There are 3 subtribes and 13 genera:

:Subtribe Dalechampiinae::"Dalechampia" (also "Cremophyllum", "Dalechampsia", "Megalostylis", "Rhopalostylis")

:Subtribe Plukenetiinae::"Angostylis" (also "Angostyles")::"Astrococcus"::"Plukenetia" (also "Accia", "Angostylidium", "Apopandra", "Botryanthe", "Ceratococcus", "Elaeophora", "Eleutherostigma", "Fragariopsis", "Hedraiostylus", "Pseudotragia", "Pterococcus", "Sajorium", "Tetracarpidium" or "Vigia")::"Haematostemon"::"Romanoa" (also "Anabaena", "Anabaenella")

:Subtribe Tragiinae::"Acidoton" (also "Durandeeldia", "Gitara")::"Cnesmone" (also "Cenesmon", "Cnesmosa")::"Megistostigma" (also "Clavistylus")::"Pachystylidium"::"Platygyna" (also "Acanthocaulon")::"Sphaerostylis"::"Tragia" (also "Agirta", "Allosandra", "Bia", "Ctenomeria", "Lassia", "Leptobotrys", "Leptorhachis", "Leucandra", "Schorigeram", "Zuckertia")

Tribe Pogonophoreae

This tribe only has 1 genus:::"Pogonophora" (also "Poraresia")

Tribe Pycnocomeae

There are 2 subtribes and 7 genera:

:Subtribe Blumeodendrinae::"Blumeodendron"::"Botryophora" (also "Botryospora", "Botryphora")::"Podadenia"::"Ptychopyxis" (also "Clarorivinia")

:Subtribe Pycnocominae::"Argomuellera" (also "Neopycnocoma", "Wetriaria")::"Droceloncia"::"Pycnocoma" (also "Comopyena")

Tribe Sphyranthereae

There is only 1 genus:::"Sphyranthera"

ubfamily Crotonoideae

Tribe Adenoclineae

There are 2 subtribes and 6 genera:

:Subtribe Adenoclininae::"Adenocline" (also "Adenoclina", "Diplostylis", "Paradenocline")::"Ditta"::"Glycydendron"::"Klaineanthus""Tetrorchidium" (also "Hasskarlia", "Tetrorchidiopsis")

:Subtribe Endosperminae::"Endospermum" (also "Capellenia")

Tribe Aleuritideae

This tribe has 6 subtribes and 16 genera:

:Subtribe Aleuritinae::"Aleurites" (also "Camirium")::"Reutealis"::"Vernicia" (also "Ambinux", "Dryandra", "Elaeococca")

:Subtribe Benoistiinae::"Benoistia"

:Subtribe Crotonogyninae::"Crotonogyne" (also "Neomanniophyton")::"Cyrtogonone"::"Manniophyton"

:Subtribe Garciinae::"Garcia" (also called "Carcia")

:Subtribe Grosserinae::"Anomalocalyx"::"Cavacoa"::"Grossera"::"Neoholstia" (also "Holstia")::"Sandwithia"::"Tannodia" (also "Domohinea")::"Tapoides"

:Subtribe Neoboutoniinae::"Neoboutonia"

Tribe Codiaeae

There are 15 genera:

::"Acidocroton"::"Baliospermum"::"Baloghia" (also "Steigeria")::"Blachia" (also "Deonia")::"Codiaeum" (also "Crozophyla", "Junghuhnia", "Phyllaurea", "Synaspisma")::"Colobocarpos"::"Dimorphocalyx"::"Dodecastigma"::"Fontainea"::"Hylandia"::"Ophellantha"::"Ostodes"::"Pantadenia"::"Sagotia"::"Strophioblachia"

Tribe Crotoneae

There are 5 genera:

::"Brasiliocroton"::"Croton" (also "Agelandra", "Aldinia", "Angelandra", "Anisepta", "Anisophyllum", "Argyra", "Argyrodendron", "Astraea", "Astrogyne", "Aubertia", "Banalia", "Barhamia", "Brachystachys", "Calypteriopetalon", "Cascarilla", "Centrandra", "Cieca", "Cleodora", "Codonocalyx", "Comatocroton", "Crotonanthus", "Crotonopsis", "Cyclostigma", "Decarinium", "Drepadenium", "Eluteria", "Engelmannia", "Eremocarpus", "Eutrophia", "Friesia", "Furcaria", "Geiseleria", "Gynamblosis", "Halecus", "Hendecandas", "Heptallon", "Heterochlamys", "Heterocroton", "Julocroton", "Klotzschiphytum", "Kurkas", "Lasiogyne", "Leptemon", "Leucadenia", "Luntia", "Macrocroton", "Medea", "Merleta", "Monguia", "Myriogomphus", "Ocalia", "Oxydectes", "Palanostigma", "Penteca", "Pilinophyton", "Piscaria", "Pleopadium", "Podostachys", "Saipania", "Schradera", "Semilta", "Tiglium", "Timandra", "Tridesmis", "Triplandra", "Vandera")::"Mildbraedia" (also "Neojatropha", "Plesiatropha")::"Moacroton" (also "Cubacroton")::"Paracroton" (also "Desmostemon", "Fahrenheitia")

Tribe Elateriospermeae

This tribe only has 1 genus:::"Elateriospermum" (also "Elaterioides", "Elaterispermum")

Tribe Gelonieae

This tribe has 2 genera:::"Cladogelonium"::"Suregada" (also "Ceratophorus", "Erythrocarpus", "Gelonium", "Owataria")

Tribe Jatropheae

There are 8 genera:

::"Annesijoa"::"Deutzianthus"::"Jatropha" (also "Adenorhopium", "Adenoropium", "Castiglionia", "Collenucia", "Curcas", "Jatropa", "Loureira", "Mesandrinia", "Mozinna", "Zimapania")::"Joannesia" (also "Anda", "Andicus")::"Leeuwenbergia"::"Loerzingia"::"Oligoceras"::"Vaupesia"

Tribe Manihoteae

This tribe has 2 genera:::"Cnidoscolus" (also "Bivonea", "Jussieuia", "Mandioca", "Victorinia") - spurge nettle::"Manihot" (also "Hotnima", "Janipha", "Manihotoides")

Tribe Micrandreae

There are 2 subtribes and 4 genera:

:Subtribe Heveinae::"Hevea" (also "Caoutchoua", "Micrandra", "Siphonanthus", "Siphonia")

:Subtribe Micrandrinae::"Cunuria"::"Micrandra" (also "Clusiophyllum", "Pogonophyllum")::"Micrandropsis"

Tribe Ricinocarpeae

There are 2 subtribes and 7 genera:

:Subtribe Bertyinae::"Bertya" (also "Lambertya")::"Borneodendron"::"Cocconerion"::"Myricanthe"

:Subtribe Ricinocarpinae::"Alphandia"::"Beyeria" (also "Beyeriopsis", "Calyptrostigma", "Clavipodium")::"Ricinocarpus" (also "Echinosphaera", "Ricinocarpus", "Roeperia")

Tribe Ricinodendreae

There are 2 genera:::"Ricinodendron"::"Schinziophyton"

Tribe Trigonostemoneae

There is only 1 genus:::"Trigonostemon" (also "Actephilopsis", "Athroisma", "Enchidium", "Kurziodendron", "Neotrigonostemon", "Nepenthandra", "Poilaniella", "Prosartema", "Silvaea", "Telogyne", "Tritaxis", "Tylosepalum")

ubfamily Euphorbioideae

Tribe Euphorbieae

This tribe has 3 subtribes and 6 genera:

:Subtribe Anthosteminae::"Anthostema"::"Dichostemma"

:Subtribe Euphorbiinae::"Cubanthus" (to be transferred to Euphorbia)::"Euphorbia" (also "Ademo", "Adenopetalum", "Adenorima", "Agaloma", "Aklema", "Alectoroctonum", "Allobia", "Anisophyllum", "Anthacantha", "Aplarina", "Arthrothamnus", "Bojeria", "Ceraselma", "Chamaesyce", "Characias", "Chylogala", "Crepidaria", "Ctenadena", "Cyathophora", "Cystidospermum", "Dactylanthes", "Dematra", "Desmonema", "Diadenaria", "Dichrophyllum", "Dichylium", "Diplocyathium", "Ditritra", "Elaeophorbia", "Endadenium", "Endoisila", "Epurga", "Esula", "Euforbia", "Eumecanthus", "Euphorbiastrum", "Euphorbiodendron", "Euphorbiopsis", "Euphorbium", "Galarhoeus", "Hexadenia", "Kanopikon", "Kobiosis", "Lacanthis", "Lathyris", "Lepadena", "Leptopus", "Lophobios", "Lortia", "Lyciopsis", "Medusea", "Monadenium", "Nisomenes", "Ossifraga", "Peccana", "Pedilanthus", "Petalandra", "Pleuradena", "Poinsettia", "Pythius", "Sclerocyathium", "Stenadenium", "Sterigmanthe", "Synadenium", "Tithymaloides", "Tithymalopsis", "Tithymalus", "Torfasadis", "Treisia", "Tricherostigma", "Trichosterigma", "Tumalis", "Vallaris", "Ventenatia", "Xamesike", "Zalitea", "Zygophyllidium")

:Subtribe Neoguillauminiinae::"Calycopeplus"::"Neoguillauminia"

Tribe Hippomaneae

This tribe has 2 subtribes and 33 genera:

:Subtribe Carumbiinae::"Omalanthus" (also "Carumbium", "Dibrachion", "Dibrachium", "Duania", "Wartmannia")

:Subtribe Hippomaninae::"Actinostemon" (also "Dactylostemon")::"Adenopeltis"::"Anomostachys"::"Balakata"::"Bonania" (also "Hypocoton")::"Colliguaja"::"Conosapium"::"Dalembertia" (also "Alcoceria")::"Dendrocousinsia"::"Dendrothrix"::"Ditrysinia"::"Duvigneaudia"::"Excoecaria" (also "Commia", "Glyphostylus")::"Falconeria"::"Grimmeodendron"::"Gymnanthes" (also "Adenogyne", "Ateramnus")::"Hippomane" (also "Mancanilla", "Mancinella")::"Mabea"::"Maprounea" (also "Aegopicron", "Aegopricon", "Aegopricum")::"Neoshirakia" (also "Shirakia")::"Pleradenophora"::"Pseudosenefeldera"::"Rhodothyrsus"::"Sapium" (also "Carumbium", "Gymnobothrys", "Sapiopsis", "Seborium", "Shirakiopsis", "Stillingfleetia", "Taeniosapium") - Chinese tallow::"Sclerocroton"::"Sebastiania" (also "Clonostachys", "Cnemidostachys", "Elachocroton", "Gussonia", "Microstachys", "Sarothrostachys", "Tragiopsis")::"Senefeldera"::"Senefelderopsis"::"Spegazziniophytum"::"Spirostachys"::"Stillingia" (also "Gymnostillingia")::"Triadica"

Tribe Hureae

There are 4 genera:::"Algernonia"::"Hura"::"Ophthalmoblapton"::"Tetraplandra" (also "Dendrobryon")

Tribe Pachystromateae

There is one genus:::"Pachystroma" (also "Acantholoma")

Tribe Stomatocalyceae

There are 2 subtribes and 4 genera:

:Subtribe Hamilcoinae::"Hamilcoa"::"Nealchornea"

:Subtribe Stomatocalycinae::"Pimelodendron" (also "Stomatocalyx")::"Plagiostyles"

ee also

*Taxonomy of the Phyllanthaceae
*Taxonomy of the Picrodendraceae


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