T-72 operators and variants

T-72 operators and variants

The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1971. It replaced the T-54/55 series as the workhorse of Soviet tank forces (while the T-64 and T-80 served as the Soviet high-technology tanks). In front-line Russian service it is being replaced by the T-90, a modernized version of the T-72. It has been exported and produced in many countries.


Past and present operators of the T-72.

* Abkhazia
* Afghanistan – Unknown. Some were captured during the Soviet-Afghan war. May have been used in the Afghan civil war. Unknown on their fate, during Operation Enduring freedom.
* Algeria – 500
* Angola – 22 T-72M1 bought from Belarus in 1999.
* Armenia – 160 [http://www.militarium.net/wojska_ladowe/t72.php "Militarium.net"] ]
* Azerbaijan – 180 T-72A en T-72B in 2003
* Belarus – 1,465 T-72B [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/belarus/army-equipment.htm Belarus Army Equipment ] ] [ [http://bartek.aganet.pl/forum/viewthread.php?forum_id=7&thread_id=34#401 The BS-Fusion Security System stopped the current process ] ]
* Bulgaria – 160 T-72M2 and a large number (some 300) in reserve [ [http://www.mod.bg/bg/docs/2008/20080325_Actual_Plan.pdf Modernization plan of the Bulgarian military] ]
* Croatia – 3 (see also M-84)
* Cuba – About 50
* Czech Republic – 543 inherited from former Czechoslovakia in 1993. 179 T-72 main battle tanks in service as of 1 January 2008. Before that there was 181 T-72 main battle tanks in service. [http://www.army.cz/scripts/detail.php?id=5775 "Czech Ministry of Defense"] ]
* Ethiopia – 50 from Yemen
* Georgia – 225+ (Т-72B1, Т-72M, T-72 sim and Т-72A Ukrainian versions)
* Hungary – 238 T-72M and T-72M1 in 1999
* India – 1,700 T-72M and T-72M1, 310 T-90 as of 2005 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/army-equipment.htm Army Equipment ] ]
* Iran – 480 T-72M1 and T-72S since 2002 (200 in 1995 and 120 in 2000) [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iran/ground-equipment.htm Iranian Ground Forces Equipment ] ]
* Iraq – 1000 T-72s, T-72Ms, T-72M1s, Lion of Babylon and Saddam tanks were in service with Iraqi Regular Army in 1990. 375 T-72s, T-72Ms, T-72M1s, Lion of Babylon and Saddam tanks were in service with Iraqi Regular Army in 2003. Only 77 T-72M1 are in service as of 2007 with the new Iraqi ArmyShapir, Yiftah S., Middle East Military Balance, "Tel Aviv University", 6, 7 [http://www.tau.ac.il/jcss/balance/Iraq.pdf] ]
* Kazakhstan – 650
* Kenya – 77 from Ukraine in 2007.
* Kyrgyzstan – 210
* Libya – 150 in 2003
* Macedonia – 30 T-72A and 1 T-72AK from Ukraine
* Malaysia
* Morocco – 200
* Myanmar – 139 T-72S
* Nagorno-Karabakh – 316 T-72
* North Korea – Probably a T-72S was sold to the North Koreans in the early 1990s. [ [http://www.konflikty.pl/artykul-wojskaladowe-282.html Czołg T-72 - Militaria - Wojska lądowe - Konflikty Zbrojne ] ]
* Poland – 586 T-72M1 (2005 - 644, 2006 - 596) [ [http://www.militarium.net/wojsko_polskie/uzbrojenie.php MILITARIUM - Wojsko Polskie - Uzbrojenie ] ] and 135 T-72M1Z [Nowa Technika Wosjkowa] (T-72M1 upgraded to PT-91 standard) (Also 98 PT-91 in service) Plans to withdraw the T-72M1 in 2010.
* Romania – 30 T-72 and 3 or 5 TR-125 (to be phased out)
* Russia – ~2144 in active service, 7800 in reserve, 155 T-72BM upgraded to T-90 equivalent, [ [http://warfare.ru/?lang=&catid=244&linkid=1775 T-72 MBT] at Warfare.ru.] [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/army-equipment.htm Russian Army Equipment] at GlobalSecurity.org.] 279+ T-90 [ [http://warfare.ru/?lang=&linkid=1778&catid=244 T-90 MBT] at Warfare.ru.]
* Serbia – 65 T-72M
* Slovakia – 272 T-72M and T-72M1
* South Ossetia – Confirmed being used in the 2008 South Ossetia War.
* Syria – 1,600 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/syria/army-equipment.htm Syria - Army Equipment] ]
* Tajikistan – 44 (33 in 2000) [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/centralasia/tajik-army-equipment.htm Tajik-Army Equipment ] ]
* Turkmenistan – 702 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/centralasia/turkmen-army-equipment.htm Turkmen-Army Equipment ] ]
* Ukraine – 1,180 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/ukraine/groundforces-equipment.htm Ground Forces Equipment - Ukraine ] ]
* Uzbekistan – 70 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/centralasia/uzbek-army-equipment.htm Uzbek-Army Equipment ] ]
* Vietnam – 120~150 in the 2005. Supplied by Poland
* Yemen – 39 in 2003

Former operators

* Chechen Republic of Ichkeria – Operated several dozen of these, left behind by the USSR, bought from USSR, Russia and captured during and before the First Chechen war.
* Czechoslovakia – About 1,700 T-72/T-72M/T-72M1 were produced between 1981 and 1990. Czechoslovak army had 815 T-72 in 1991. All were passed on to the successor states.
* East Germany – 35 T-72 (from USSR), 219 T-72 (from Poland and Czechoslovakia), 31 T-72M (from USSR), 162 T-72M (from Poland and Czechoslovakia) and 136 T-72M1. 75 T-72's were fitted with additional hull armour. Passed on to the unified German state.
* Finland – Some 160-170 T-72M1s. About 70 T-72M1s (one armoured brigade) were bought from the Soviet Union and were delivered in 1984, 1985-1988 and 1990. A further 97 T-72M1s (including a small number of command versions T-72M1K and T-72M1K1) were bought from German surplus stocks in 1992-1994. All are now withdrawn from service and have been scrapped or sold as spares to the Czech Republic. [ [http://lotta.yle.fi/motweb.nsf/fabf9f16f4685faf4225688700639112/e59485a815e30bee42256aea00310512/$FILE/korvola4301.htm M.O.T. - "Till skrotpris"] ]
* Germany – 549 tanks taken from GDR's army, all scrapped, sold to other countries or given to the museums.
* Serbia and Montenegro – Passed on to the successor states.
* Soviet Union – Passed on to successor states.
* Yugoslavia – 90 T-72M and 3 T-72MK made in Czechoslovakia and Soviet Union; passed on to successor states. (see also M-84)

Evaluation-only operators

* United States


Soviet Union and Russian Federation

The T-72 was designed and first built in the Soviet Union.

* T-72 "Ural" (Ob'yekt 172M) (1973) - Original version, armed with 125 mm D-81TM smoothbore tank gun. Unlike the later versions it had the searchlight mounted on left. It also has flipper type armour panels. It had the TPD-2-49 coincidence optical rangefinder sight protruding from its turret."Czołgi Świata" (World's Tanks or Tanks Of The World) magazine issue 20] [http://www.pancerni.abajt.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=21&Itemid=35&limit=1&limitstart=1 T-72 [ZSRR: Strona 2 - Pancerni.net ] ]
** T-72K - Command version of T-72 "Ural" with additional R-130M radio. Company command versions were fitted with two R123M/R-173 additional radios and also carried a 10 m telescopic mast. Battalion and regiment command versions were fitted with two R123M/R-173 additional radios and the R-130M that uses the 10 m mast when its erected. In NATO code T-72K was represented by three different designations: T-72K1, T-72K2 and T-72K3 which represented the company command version, battalion command version and regiment command version.
** T-72 (Ob'yekt 172M-E, Ob'yekt 172M-E1) - Soviet export version armed with 125 mm D-81T smoothbore tank gun with 44 rounds. It was sold to Iraq and Syria and was also built in Poland by "Bumar-Łabędy".
*** T-72 fitted with a French 155 mm F1 turret for trails in India.
*** T-72 fitted with a British 155 mm Vickers T6 turret for trails in India.
** Robot-2 - Remote controlled T-72 "Ural".
** Ob'yekt 172-2M "Buffalo" - Modernization of T-72 made in early 1970s. Angle of the front armour slope was changed to 30 degrees. 100% metal side-skirts protecting sides of the hull, added armour screens protecting the turret, ammo storage was increased to 45 rounds, modified suspension, added smoke grenade launchers, engine's power was boosted to convert|840|hp|abbr=on.
** T-72 "Ural-1" (Ob'yekt 172M1) (1976) - new 2A46 main gun, new armour on the turret.
** T-72V - ("V" for "vzryvnoi" - explosive) unofficial designator for tanks, fitted with Kontakt-1 explosive reactive armour fitted to hull front and turret.
** T-72 "Ural" modernization. Large numbers of early T-72 production models were modernized in 1980s. The modernization included placing the search light on the right-hand-side of main armament, blanking off the TPD-2-49 coincidence optical rangefinder and fitting of rubber skirts protecting the tracks instead of the flipper type armor panels.
** T-72A (Ob'yekt 176) (1979) - An improved version of the basic T-72 "Ural". Overall, its offensive capabilities are similar to the basic T-72 "Ural", but it is much better protected. The differences between T-72 "Ural" and T-72A include the searchlight being placed on the right hand side of turret, the TPD-2-49 coincidence optical rangefinder being replaced by the TPD-K1 laser rangefinder, added plastic armour track skirts covering the upper part of the suspension with separate panels protecting the sides of the fuel and stowage panniers instead of the flipper type armor panels used in T-72 "Ural", turret front and top being heavily reinforced with composite armour better known by its US codename - "Dolly Parton", provisions for mounting reactive armor, electronic fire control system, MB smoke grenade launchers, flipper armour mount on front mudguards, internal changes, and a slight weight increase. [http://www.inetres.com/gp/military/cv/tank/T-72.html "Gary's Combat Vehicle Reference Guide"] ]
*** T-72A obr.1979g - Additional glacis armour with thickness of 17 mm of high resistance steel.
*** T-72A obr.1984g - Late production model with anti radiation lining.
*** T-72AK (Ob'yekt 176K) - Command version of T-72A. In NATO code T-72AK was represented by three different designations: T-72AK1, T-72AK2 and T-72AK3 which represented the company command version, battalion command version and regiment command version.
*** T-72AV - ("V" for "vzryvnoi" - explosive) model with Kontakt-1 explosive reactive armour fitted to hull front and turret.
*** T-72M (Ob'yekt 172M-E2, Ob'yekt 172M-E3, Ob'yekt 172M-E4) - Soviet export version, similar to T-72A but with thinner armour and downgraded weapon sustems. Also built in Poland and ex-Czechoslovakia [http://www.pancerni.abajt.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=21&Itemid=35&limit=1&limitstart=2 T-72 [ZSRR: Strona 3 - Pancerni.net ] ]
**** T-72MK (T-72M(K)) - Export version of T-72AK. It is a command vehicle for battalion commanders and has additional radio equipment including the R-130M radio, AB-1-P/30-M1-U generator and a TNA-3 navigation system. The main external difference is a 10 m telescopic antenna stowed under the rear of the stowage box during travel. An additional antenna base for this telescopic antenna is mounted on the left side of the turret. Because of the additional equipment the number of round for the 125 mm tank gun had to be lowered from 44 to 38. In NATO code T-72MK was represented by three different designations: T-72MK1, T-72MK2 and T-72MK3 which represented the company command version, battalion command version and regiment command version.
**** T-72M1 (Ob'yekt 172M-E5, Ob'yekt 172M-E6) - Soviet export version, with thicker armour and similar to T-72A obr.1979g. It also is fitted with 7+5 smoke grenade dischargers on turret front. (built also in Poland and ex-Czechoslovakia).
***** T-72M1K - Commander's variant with additional radios.
***** T-72M1V - T-72M1 with Kontakt-1 explosive reactive armour ("V" for "vzryvnoi" - explosive).
***** T-72M1M (Ob'yekt 172M-E8) - Soviet export version. It's a T-72M1 upgraded to T-72B standard. It has the Arena Active Protection System.
* T-72B (Ob'yekt 184) (NATO code: SMT M1988) {1985} (SMT - Soviet Medium Tank) - Much improved version with 1A40-1 fire control system, thicker armour, turret front and top was heavily reinforced with composite armour better known by its US codename "Super Dolly Parton", 20 mm of appliqué armour in the front of hull, 9K120 system which gives T-72B 9M119 "Svir" (NATO code: AT-11 Sniper) laser-guided antitank missile capability, new 2A46M main gun, 1K13-49 sight, stabilization system, and new V-84-1 engine with 840 hp (626 kW). On early models the smoke dischargers were mounted on the turret front (as per T-72A), later they were grouped on the left side of the turret to prepare for the installation of ERA bricks.
** T-72B fitted with 227 "Kontakt-1" ERA bricks to the hull and turret. The glacis plate and turret is covered with a layer of single ERA blocks and the turret's bottom row is mounted horizontally. There's also an ERA array on the sideskirts. They're often incorrectly called T-72BV.
** T-72BK (Ob'yekt 184K) - Command version of T-72B, recognizable by having multiple radio antennas and a radio mast stowage under rear turret bin.
** T-72S "Shilden" (T-72M1M1, Ob'yekt 172M-E8) - Export version of T-72B with only 155 ERA bricks, simplified NBC system, no anti-radiation lining etc.
** T-72B1 (Ob'yekt 184-1) - T-72B without ATGM capability and with the T-72A's optics.
*** T-72B1 fitted with "Kontakt-1" ERA. It has eight SGD on left-hand-side of the turret and explosive reactive armour on turret and hull front.
*** T-72B1K (Ob'yekt 184K-1) - Command version of T-72B1.
*** T-72S1 "Shilden" (T-72M1M1) - Soviet T-72B1 export version, ERA modifications were small as T-72B, appeared at 1991.
** T-72B obr.1989g - T-72B equipped with advanced Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armour, composite armour in sides of turret as well. Often called T-72BM or T-72B(M) but this is not correct. NATO code: SMT M1990.
** T-72B obr.1990g - Additionally fitted with new FCS, cross-wind sensor and sometimes V-92S2 engine.
*** T-72B obr.1990g with an improved commander's cupola with a larger sight.
**** T-90 (Ob'yekt 188) - This is a further development of the T-72, incorporating many features of the heavier, more complex T-80. It was first called T-72BU but after the poor performance of the T-72 in Chechnya and Kuwait/Iraq it was decided to rename it to improve its chances on the export market.
** T-72BM "Rogatka" obr.2006g (Ob'yekt 184M) - Upgrade of T-72B under "Rogatka" programme. First shown at the 2006 Russian Arms Expo, it is upgraded with new fire control system including a gunner's thermal sight, "Nakidka" camouflage kit, new 125 mm 2A46M-5 main gun with muzzle reference system, V-92S2 1,000 hp diesel engine and new "Relikt" 3rd generation explosive reactive armour which is claimed to be twice as effective as Kontakt-5.
* BMO-T ("Boyevaya Mashina Ognemyochikov") - This is a transport vehicle for flamethrower-squads armed with RPO launcher.
* BMPT (Ob'yekt 199) - Heavy convoy and close tank support vehicle ("Boyevaya Mashina Podderzhki Tankov"). All new turret armed with 2 30 mm 2A42 autocannons (500 rounds), 1 boxed 9M133 Kornet ATGM launcher on left-hand-side of weapons mount (4 rounds), AGS-17/30 30 mm grenade launchers and a 7.62 mm PKT MG (2,000 rounds). It be also fitted with either 2 7.62 mm PKT MGs or 30 mm AGS-17/30 as bow weapons and a 902A "Tucha" 81 mm smoke grenade launcher array. Features new fire control system with thermal sights and a ballistic computer and 3rd generation "Relikt" explosive reactive armour and "Kaktus" modular armour. It is equipped with Agat-MR passive and thermal night vision devices, an NBC detection and protection system, a crosswind sensor and parts of the KAZ "Shtora" active protection system. The vehicle can be fitted with either the KMT-8 or the EMT mine clearing system. It also has the engine from T-90A. The term BMP-T that is very often found is not correct.
* TOS-1 - Large box-type multi-barrel napalm rocket launcher with 30 tubes that replaces turret.
* TZM-T - Reloading vehicle for the TOS-1 mobile multi-barrel napalm rocket launcher.
* BREM-1 ("Bronirovannaya Remonto-Evakuatsionna Mashina") - Armoured recovery vehicle with a hydraulic crane with capacity of 12 tonnes mounted at the front of the hull on the left side. It also has a main winch with capacity of 25 tons which can be increased to 100 tonnes, auxiliary winch, hydraulically operated dozer/stabilizing blade at the front of the hull, towing equipment and a complete range of tools and recovery equipment.
** BREM-1M - improved version fitted with one-piece side bin, a more powerful crane and improved recovery tools. The crew can remain inside the vehicle for recovery operations.
* IMR-2 ("Inzhenernaya Mashina Razgrashdeniya") - Combat engineer vehicle. It has a telescoping crane arm which can lift between 5 and 11 metric tons and utilizes a pincers for uprooting trees. Pivoted at the front of the vehicle is a dozer blade that can be used in a V-configuration or as a straight dozer blade. When not required it is raised clear of the ground. On the vehicle's rear, a mine-clearing system is mounted.
** IMR-2M1 - Simplified model without the mine-clearing system. Entered service in 1987.
** IMR-2M2 - Improved version that is better suited for operations in dangerous situations, for example in contaminated areas. It entered service in 1990 and has a modified crane arm with bucket instead off the pincers.
** IMR-2MA - Latest version with bigger operator's cabin armed with a 12.7 mm machine gun NSV.
*** Klin-1 - Remote controlled IMR-2.
* MTU-72 (Ob'yekt 632) ("Tankovyj Mostoukladchik") - bridge layer based on T-72 chassis. The overall layout and operating method of the system are similar to those of the MTU-20 and MTU bridgelayers. The bridge, when laid, has an overall length of 20 meters. The bridge has a maximum capacity of 50,000 kg, is 3.3 meters wide, and can span a gap of 18 m. By itself, the bridge weighs 6400 kg. The time required to lay the bridge is 3 minutes, and 8 minutes for retrieval.
* RKhM-7 "Berloga-1" ("Razvedivatel’naya Khimicheskaya Mashina") - NBC reconnaissance vehicle without turret and with fixed superstructure.
* Ob'yekt 327 - Self-propelled 152 mm gun. Prototype only.


* T-72M2 - upgraded T-72M1 with new night vision and thermal devices, improved armour (up to 500 mm) and anti-radiation cladding, rubber side skirts, C4I and IR suppression coating.


* M-84D Degman - More modern prototype based on the M-84.
* M-95 Degman - 3rd generation tank based on M-91 Vihor tank.


* T-72 - A designation used for all unmodified T-72 main battle tanks in service with Cuba. [ "Tanknet"] ]
** T-72M1 (Not to be confused with Soviet T-72M1) - T-72 equipped with a Chinese radio set instead of the Soviet one and better protection for it against humidity, heat and bumps.
** T-72M2 (Not to be confused with Slovak T-72M2) - T-72 with steel protection shield in the front of the AA HMG.

Czech Republic

* T-72M3 CZ - T-72M3CZ includes the gunner's thermal image sight with two part doors and the tank's commander tall cylindrical thermal image sight. Tank's driver passive IR sight viewer leaves that and Laser range finder and the ballistic calculator make computerized and added internal navigation equipment - this variant was not accepted by the Czech Army in favour of T-72M4CZ.
** T-72M4 CZ - Added new ERA armour for protection from the HEAT and APFSDS round, additional armour array around turret with flat-face frontal aspect, MB smoke grenade dischargers on each side of turret. The tank is equipped with a new Galileo Avionica TURMS-T computerized FCS (it is equal to the one used in C1 Ariete), power pack was equipped with Perkins CV12-1000 740kW/1,000 hp water-cooled diesel engine and an Allison XTG-411-6 automatic transmission. All drive train work was taken over by Israel NIMDA and the existing transmission instead of the Allison. Also the weight of the T-72M4CZ grew by 4 tonnes, tank's commander tall cylindrical sight is similar to the one used in French Leclerc MBT. Czech Republic has upgraded 30 tanks to the T-72M4CZ standard.
*** VT-72M4 - Modernized VT-72 (BREM-72) ARV with T-72M4CZ upgrades including the power pack and communications upgrades.
* ShKH 2000 "Zuzana" (Zuzanne) - A 155 mm (45 calibers) version (the first prototype of which was completed by ZTS in December 1992) of the Dana 152 mm self-propelled gun-howitzer installed on a modified T-72M1 chassis.

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

* M-84AI - Armoured recovery vehicle created from the chassis of a M-84A. It completed with the help of Polish experts, resulting in a vehicle similar to the WTZ-3. Standard equipment includes: A TD-50 crane, front-mounted stabilizing dozer blade, main and secondary winches.

Former East Germany

* T 72M - This designator was not only used for the standard T-72M, but also for 75 basic T-72's that were upgraded by RWN in 1986. These tanks ("Kampfpanzer") were fitted with rubber side skirts, smoke grenade launchers "Tucha" and the additional 16 mm steel plate on the upper glacis plate.Deutsche Militärfahrzeuge, page 559]
* T 72M "Übergangsversion" - East-German army designator for 23 late-production T-72M's from Poland, fitted with the additional hull armour. Delivered in 1986.
* T 72(K) and T-72(K1) - East-German army designators for command tanks ("Führungspanzer").
* T 72TK - East German designation for VT-72B (BRAM-72B). The vehicle was planned to enter service with NVA in 1990, but only one was actually handed over to IB-9 ("Instandsetzungsbatallion 9") at Drögeheide (Torgelow). Two others were still in Grossenhain (Central tank workshop near Dresden) on 3 October 1990. At this place the tanks got fitted with relevant NVA kit and the cranes were tested/certified.
* BLP 72 ("Brückenlegepanzer") - The East-German army had plans to develop a new bridgelayer tank that should have been ready for series production from 1987 but after several difficulties the project was canceled. [ [http://www.militaertechnik-der-nva.de/Waffensysteme/BLP72/BLP72.html BLP72 ] ]
* FAB 172M or FAP 172U ("Fahrausbildungspanzer") - Driver training vehicle. Three vehicles were made by using the chassis of the cancelled BLP 72 project.

Former Czechoslovakia

* T-72M (Ob'yekt 172M-E3) - This model was build under licence by ZTS Martin. In Western sources it is often referred to as T-72G which might be the designator for the version exported to the Middle East. In the late 1980s the tanks produced for the Czechoslovak army and for export as well were fitted with some improvements from the Soviet T-72A programme, including rubber side skirts (instead of "gill armour") and 902B "Tucha" smoke grenade launchers.
* T-72M1 (Ob'yekt 172M-E5) - This export version of the T-72A was also build by Martin. An external difference with the Soviet original is the reduced number of KMT mounts on the lower glacis plate.
* VT-72 (BRAM-72) ("Vyprošt’ovací Tank") - Czechoslovak armoured recovery vehicle based on T-72 chassis. [ [http://154prapor.cz/organizace/technika/zenijni-technika-a-material/vyprostovaci-tank-vt-72 Vyprošťovací tank VT-72 | 154. záchranný prapor Rakovník AČR ] ]
** VT-72B (BRAM-72B) - Czechoslovak ARV based on BREM-1 with dozer blade with prominent rams mounted on the front of the vehicle, hydraulic crane on the right side of vehicle and a large built-up superstructure at the front of the hull with a large tackle block in front of it.


*T-72 SIM-1 - New FALCON command and control system, GPS navigation system and new thermal device. It has also a friend-or-foe recognition system.


* Ajeya MK1 - Indian version of the T-72M. In parallel with buying various T-72 versions from the Soviet Union, India also launched production at a domestic heavy engineering plant in Avadi where 900 vehicles were made and designated as Ajeya, in 1993 they were improved to T-72M1 versions. [http://www.jedsite.info/tanks-tango/tango-numbers-su/t-72_series/t72-series.html "JED The Military Equipment Directory"] ]
* Ajeya MK2 - Indian version of the T-72M1. For a rather long time the Indian Army did not intend to modernize it's T-72 tanks since it was relying on their own tank project the Arjun. However, the Arjun program had been undergoing difficulties. As a result they adopted the Operation Rhino plan aimed at re-equipping 1,500 T-72M1 tanks. The upgrade program provides for installation of an Polish SKO-1T DRAWA-T fire control systems/thermal imagers supplied by the Polish PCO/Cenzin (from PT-91 Twardy), DRDO explosive reactive armour, a navigation system from Israel 's Tamam, German Litef or South African RDI, a locally developed laser illumination warning system, new radios manufactured by Tadiran or GES Marconi and an improved NBC protection system will be fitted. The tank is planned to be powered by a convert|1000|hp|abbr=on S-1000 engine made by the Polish firm PZL-Wola (also from PT-91 Twardy). It is also upgraded with new fire detection and suppression systems and laser warning systems on either side of the turret. Also known as Combat Improved Ajeya. Indian sources often say that 1800-2,000 T-72M1 tanks will be upgraded top to bottom while the rest will undergo only partial improvement.
* Tank EX - Indian integration of the Arjun turret onto the T-72 hull, Prototype only.


*T-72 Lion of Babylon (Asad Babil) - Iraqi-assembled version of the T-72M, with laminated armour improvement and electro-optical countermeasures.
* Saddam - T-72M modified by Iraq to suit local conditions. Some of the suspension shock absorbers were removed and a searchlight on right-hand-side of main armament was added.


* T-72M (Ob'yekt 172M-E3) - This model was build under licence by "Bumar-Łabędy" in Gliwice. In Western sources the T-72M is often referred to as T-72G which might be the designator for the Middle East export version. Like Soviet tanks, the Polish T-72M was initially fitted with "gill armour"; later the tanks were upgraded with rubber side skirts and "Tucha" smoke grenade launchers. Late production models have the additional 16 mm steel plate welded on the upper glacis plate, like the T-72M1.
* T-72M1 (Ob'yekt 172M-E5) - This export version of the T-72A was also build under licence in Poland. An external difference with the Soviet original is the reduced number of KMT mounts on the lower glacis plate.
* T-72M1D - Polish designation for T-72M1K. [http://wartechnology.ovh.org/pages/bron_obecna/t-72.php "War Technology"] ]
* Jaguar - When Polish T-72 production started in 1978, Polish considered upgrading them and the first T-72 upgrade program was launched by the Institute of Armament and Equipment of the Polish Army in 1982. The project was codenamed Jaguar since that was the designation under which Soviet Union handed a set of plans over to Poland. The Jaguar never left the conceptual design phase.
* T-72 "Wilk" - In 1986, the Polish T-72 Wilk project was instituted to allow the tank repair plants to upgrade T-72 tanks at their own facilities. In particular, it was proposed that the Soviet-made Volna fire control system be replaced by the Czechoslovak-made Kladivo FCS or by the Polish Merida, both originally designed for T-55AM "Merida". Beside the new FCS, the Radomka illumination-free night vision devices were installed in the driver's compartment, as were the LIS-Varta night sight, Obra laser illumination warning system, Tellur anti-laser smoke dischargers, solid or sectionalized metal side skirts and the Polish-developed Erawa-1 or Erawa-2 explosive reactive armour were also fitted. It was further developed as PT-91.
** PT-91 "Twardy" - a Polish tank based on T-72M1.

*** T-72M1Z - (Z for "Zmodernizowany" - modernized) T-72M1 upgraded to PT-91 standard.
* PZA Loara - SPAAG prototype based on T-72 chassis.
** PZA Loara-A - SPAAG based on PT-91 chassis.
* SJ-09 - Polish driver training vehicle. The turret has been replaced by a flat-plate cabin with dummy gun barrel.
* WZT-3 - ARV based on T-72M.


* TR-125 - Romanian tank based on T-72 with extra armour, modified suspension and more powerful diesel engine.


* M-2001 (M-84AB1) - M-84 tank modernized to T-90 level by Yugoimport SDPR.
* Yugoimport SDPR T-72 modernization pack - T-72 with upgraded engine, communication gear and ERA.


* T-72M1A - T-72M1 upgraded with suspension of the drover's seat from hull roof, DSM 16.1 engine monitoring system, ERA armour package around the turret with a flat front section, fire detection and suppression system, improved transmission, improved hull floor protection, laser Detection Warning System, modified electrical harness, PNK-72 driver's night sight, SGS-72A commanders stabilized passive sight, gunner's sight with a large head with two section door, S12U diesel engine, Slovenian EFCS3-72A fire control system and MB smoke grenade dischargers on the each side of the turret. It also has two external sensor rod mounts on turret roof.
* T-72M2 - Slovak modernisation. Development was completed but without any order for tank fleet modernisation.
* VT-72C - Improved VT-72B produced since 1999 for India. It is fitted with more powerful Polish S-12U diesel engine and has a modified interior.
* VT-72Ž - Combat engineer tank. Similar to the VT-72B but with a modified telescopic arm with bucket.
* MT-72 - Slovakian scissors-type bridge based on T-72 chassis. When deployed the bridge is 20 m long and will span a gap of 18 m. It is capable of carrying loads of up to 50 tonnes.

ocialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

* M-84 - Yugoslav-built tank based mostly on the T-72M but with some upgrades.
* M-84A - Improved version of M-84. Basically a T-72M1 with new fire control system like the M-84.
** M-84AK - Command version of M-84A fitted with land navigation equipment.
* M-84AB - Export version of standard M-84, with new SUV-M-84 computerized fire-control system, including the DNNS-2 gunner's day/night sight, with independent stabilization in two planes and integral Laser rangefinder. About 200 were exported to Kuwait.
** M-84ABK - Command version of M-84AB fitted with land navigation equipment.
** M-84ABN - Navigation version of M-84AB fitted with extensive communication equipments, land navigation equipment, and a generator for the command role.

outh Africa

* T-72 "Tiger" - The modernization package from LIW includes two large sights installed on the front of the turret.


* T-72MP - modernization package for the T-72 by Ukrainian company KMDB, including improved engine, armour and fire control with sights SAVAN 15MP (gunner) and SAGEM VS (commander). The upgrade is built in co-operation with Sagem of France, and PSP Bohemia of the Czech Republic.
* T-72AM "Banan" - Ukrainian T-72A upgrade covered extensively with early generation "Kontakt-1" ERA tiles (V-shaped array around sides of turret and an array on sideskirts). It also has 6TD-1 or 6TD-2 diesel engine (1250 hp) from the T-84 and additional smoke grenade launchers.
* T-72AG - KMDB modernization package with components from the T-80UD, including improved engine 6TD-1, "Kontakt-5" armour, fire control system with TKN-4S and 1G46 sights, and main armament.
* T-72-120 - KMDB modernization package, including an auto-loaded main gun KBM2 capable of firing NATO 120 mm ammunition or ATGM.
* BMT-72 - Ukrainian T-72 upgrade. The unique compact design of the Ukrainian-developed BMT-72 power pack, based on that of the T-84, made it possible not only to considerably increase the power capabilities of the vehicle, but also to introduce into the vehicle design a troop compartment. The troop compartment is located between the fighting compartment and the power pack compartment. In the troop compartment roof there is a set of three hatches in slightly raised portion of the hull roof behind turret that allow the troops to get in or dismount the vehicle. There are also steps on the end of each catwalk at rear of vehicle. The main visual difference between BMT-72 and T-72 is a seventh pair of roadwheels.
* BTS-5B - Ukrainian version of the BREM-1.



* Sewell, Stephen ‘Cookie’ (1998). cite web |url=http://www.knox.army.mil/center/ocoa/ArmorMag/ja98/4sewell98.pdf |title= “Why Three Tanks?” |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070628085626/http://www.knox.army.mil/center/ocoa/ArmorMag/ja98/4sewell98.pdf |archivedate=2007-06-28 in "Armor" vol. 108, no. 4, p. 21. Fort Knox, KY: US Army Armor Center. ISSN 0004-2420. (PDF format)
* Christopher. F. Foss, Jane's Armour and Artillery 2005-2006. ISBN 978-0-7106-2686-8.
* Leizin, Uri (2004) [http://www.waronline.org/IDF/Articles/t72-myth/index.html "Two myths of one battle: Syrian T-72's in 1982 Lebanon war"] (in Russian)
* Zaloga, Steven J (1993) T-72 Main Battle Tank 1974-93, Osprey Publishing ISBN 1-85532-338-9.
* Ustyantsev, Sergej Viktorovich; Kolmakov Dmitrij Gennadevich "Boyeviye mashiny Uralvagonzavoda. Tank T-72"
* A.V. Karpenko (1996) "Obozreniye Bronetankovoj Tekhniki (1905-1995 gg.)" Nevskij Bastion

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