- Automated wearable artificial kidney
Automated wearable artificial kidney (AWAK) describes technology that seeks to compact the
dialysismachinery into a lightweight, wearable device. The goal is to mimic the function of the kidneys by providing continued dialysis to avoid the sudden electrolyte disturbances associated with timed dialysis, while at the same time being effectively autonomous so that little to no patient intervention is necessary. Methods of implementation range the same spectrum as traditional dialysis. Experiments have been carried out since the seventies, and included miniature hemofilters utilizing REDY cartridges or by drinking dialysate. The development of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysiswas successful and significant achievement, but it requires significant patient intervention. [cite journal|title=In search of a 24 hours per day artificial kidney.|pmid=608888|last=Lande|first=AJ|coauthors=Roberts M., Pecker, EA|journal=Journal of Dialysis|year=1977|volume=1|issue=8|pages=805-823] [cite journal|title=Wearable artificial kidneys for continuous dialysis. A personal view.|last=Roberts|first=M.|year=1993|journal=American Society for Artificial Internal Organs|volume=39|issue=1|pages=19-23|pmid=8439675]
Recently, researchers in Italy have developed a semi-autonomous system called the Vicenza Wearable Artificial Kidney for Peritoneal Dialysis (ViWAK PD). The ViWAK PD is a fully-electronic system with a belt and waterproof chamber that houses the replacable sorbent tubes. Patients replace the sorbent cartridges a couple times a day on a schedule in conjunction with overnight peritoneal dialysis. Patients can monitor and control their therapy wirelessly via a handheld remote or a computer. [cite journal|title=The Vicenza Wearable Artificial Kidney for Peritoneal Dialysis (ViWAK PD)|last=Ronco|first=Claudio|coauthors=Fecondini, Luciano|year=2007|journal=Blood Purification|volume=25|issue=4|pages=383-338|pmid=177785968|doi=10.1159/000107775|url=http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Aktion=ShowPDF&ArtikelNr=000107775&Ausgabe=233672&ProduktNr=223997&filename=000107775.pdf|format=pdf] In 2008, researchers at
UCLAdetailed a peritoneal-based AWAK that can provide continuous filtration with minimal fluid loss. The system would never need patient intervention or cartridge replacement. [cite journal|last=Lee|first=D.B.N.|coauthors=Roberts, M.|year=2006|url=http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/113489318/HTMLSTART|title=Wearable artificial kidneys: A peritoneal dialysis approach|journal=Dialysis and Transplantation|volume=35|issue=12|pages=780–782|doi=10.1002/dat.20074] [cite journal|last=Lee|first=D.B.N.|coauthors=Roberts, M.|year=2008|url=http://www.springerlink.com/content/p178258l0v3x88j2/|title=A peritoneal based automated wearable artificial kidney|journal=Clinical and Experimental Nephrology|volume=12|issue=3|pages=171–180|doi=10.1007/s10157-008-0050-9] The technology has been licensed for production. [cite web|url=http://newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/ucla/ucla-and-va-researchers-design-52444.aspx/|title=Researchers design model for automated, wearable artificial kidney|publisher=UCLA newsroom|accessdate=2008-09-22]
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