- Trujillo, Colón
flag_size = 160px
seal_size = 60px
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = flag|Honduras
subdivision_type1 = Departament
subdivision_name1 = Colón
population_as_of = 2004
population_total = 30,000
latd= 15|latm= 55|lats= |latNS=N
longd=86 |longm=0 |longs= |longEW=W
Trujillo is a city and a
municipalityon the northern Caribbeancoast of the Honduran department of Colón, of which the city is the capital. The municipality has a population of about 30,000 (2003). The city is located on a bluff overlooking the Bay of Trujillo. Behind the city rise two prominent mountains, Mount Capiroand Mount Calentura. Three Garifunafishing villages--Santa Fe, San Antonio, and Guadelupe--are located along the beach.
Christopher Columbuslanded in Trujillo on August 14, 1502, during his fourth and final voyage to the Americas. Columbus named the place "Punta de Caxinas". It was the first time he touched the Central American mainland. He noticed that the water in this part of the Caribbean was very deep and therefore called the area "Golfo de Honduras", i.e., "The Gulf of the Depths" ("see": Bay of Honduras).
The history of the modern town begins in
1524, shortly after the conquest of Mexicoby Hernán Cortés. Cortés sent Cristóbal de Olidto found a Spanish outpost in the region, and he established a town named Triunfo de la Cruzin the vicinity. When Olid began using the town as his base for establishing his own realm in Central America, Cortés sent Francisco de las Casasto remove him. Las Casas lost most of his fleet in a storm, but he was nevertheless able to defeat Olid and restore the region to Cortés. Upon assuming control, Las Casas decided to relocate the town to its present location, because the natural harbor was larger. At the same time, Triunfo de la Cruz was renamed Trujillo. His deputy, Juan Lopez de Aguirrewas charged with establishing the new town, but he sailed off, leaving another deputy, named Medina, to found the town.
Cortés himself visited the town shortly after, during a campaign to suppress the internecine fighting between his followers. It was he who sent ships to established Spanish colonies in
Jamaicaand Cubafor saplings, seed, and domesticated animals that could be raised there. In the coming years, however, Trujillo became more important as a shipment point for goldand silvermined in the interior of the country. Because of its sparse population, the city also became a frequent target of pirates.
Under Spanish rule Trujillo became the capital of Honduras, but because of its vulnerability the capital was changed to the inland town of
Comayagua. The fortress, Fortaleza de Santa Bárbara (El Castillo), which sits on the bluff overlooking the bay, was built by the Spanish around 1550. Nevertheless, it was inadequate to really defend Trujillo from pirates--the largest gathering of pirates in history took place in the vicinity in 1683--or rival colonial powers: the Dutch, French, and English. The town was destroyed several times between 1633and 1797, and during the eighteenth century, the Spanish all but abandoned Trujillo because it was deemed indefensible.
When Honduras obtained its independence in
1821, Trujillo lost its status of capital citypermanently first to Comayagua, which lost it to Tegucigalpain 1880. From this same period onwards Trujillo also began to prosper again.
1860, the mercenaryWilliam Walker, who had seized control of neighboring Nicaragua, was finally caught and executed in Trujillo. His tomb is a local tourist attraction.
O. Henry(William Sydney Porter) spent about a year living in Honduras, primarily in Trujillo. He later wrote a number of short stories that took place in "Coralio" in the fictional Central American country of "Anchuria", based on the real town of Trujillo. Most of these stories appear in his book "Of Cabbages and Kings".
* Robert Stoner Chamberlain, "The Conquest and Colonization of Honduras, 1502-1550", 1966. ISBN 0374913684
Honduras independence was in 1821.
* [http://www.truxillo.info Truxillo.info] (history, news and pictures of Trujillo(spanish)).
* [http://www.goodfelloweb.com/honduras/trujillo/index.html Honduran Notebook, 1997]
* [http://www.infohn.com Interactive Map of Trujjilo]
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