Carlos Kleiber

Carlos Kleiber

Carlos Kleiber (July 3, 1930 - July 13, 2004) was an Austrian-Argentine conductor.

Early career

Kleiber was born Karl Ludwig Kleiber in Berlin, the son of the Austrian conductor Erich Kleiber and Ruth Goodrich, an American. [cite news | author=Harvey Sachs | title=The Conductor Who Could Not Tolerate Error | url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B05EFDE113AF936A15754C0A9629C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all | work=New York Times | date=2004-07-25 | accessdate=2007-10-14] . In 1935, the Kleiber family emigrated to Buenos Aires, after Erich Kleiber had resigned his post at the Berlin Opera in protest over the Nazi Party's policies. Karl's name became Carlos. As a youth, he had an English governess, grew up in English boarding schools in Argentina and later studied in New York and Zurich. He also composed, sang, and played piano and timpani. While his father noticed his son's musical talents, Erich Kleiber nevertheless dissuaded Carlos from pursuing a musical career: "What a pity the boy is musically talented," wrote his father to a friend.

Carlos Kleiber initially studied chemistry in Zürich, but soon decided to dedicate himself to music. He was repetiteur at the Gartnerplatz Theatre in Munich in 1952, and became "Kapellmeister" at Potsdam in 1954. From 1958 to 1964 he was "Kapellmeister" at the Deutsche Oper am Rhein in Düsseldorf and Duisburg, and then at the Opera in Zürich from 1964 to 1966. Between 1966 and 1973 he was first "Kapellmeister" in Stuttgart, his last permanent post. During the following years, he often conducted at the Bavarian State Opera in Munich.

Mature career

During his freelance career, Kleiber restricted his conducting appearances to a select number of occasions. He made his British debut in 1966 with a performance at the Edinburgh Festival of Alban Berg's opera "Wozzeck", a work his father had conducted at its premiere in 1925. He made his Bayreuth debut in 1974 with a performance of Richard Wagner's "Tristan und Isolde".

His American debut came in 1977 at the San Francisco Opera. [cite news | author=John Rockwell | title=Carlos Kleiber Is Dead at 74; Music's Perfectionist Recluse | url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C01E0DF103AF933A15754C0A9629C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all | work=New York Times | date=2004-07-20 | accessdate=2007-10-14] . In 1983, his second US performance was with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, in what proved to be his only US orchestra appearance. [cite news | author=Michael Walsh | title=Unvarnished Symphonies | url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,952033,00.html | work=Time | date=1983-07-13 | accessdate=2007-10-14] cite news | author=Nicholas Kenyon | title=Carlos Kleiber: Genius Wrapped In an Enigma | url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE5D61E3DF936A25753C1A96F948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all | work=New York Times | date=1989-10-15 | accessdate=2007-10-14] . His New York Metropolitan Opera debut was in 1988, conducting Giacomo Puccini's "La bohème" with Luciano Pavarotti and Mirella Freni. [cite news | author=Donal Henehan | title=Pavarotti and Freni in "La Boheme" | url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE0DA113AF937A15752C0A96E948260 | work=New York Times | date=1988-01-24 | accessdate=2007-10-14] In 1989, following Herbert von Karajan's resignation from the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, Kleiber was offered, and declined, the post of the orchestra's next music director. [Jacobs, Arthur (1990) "Kleiber, Carlos" "The Penguin Dictionary of Musical Performers" Viking, London] Kleiber returned to the Met in 1990 to conduct "Otello" [cite news | author=Donal Henehan | title=Carlos Kleiber Leads Placido Domingo In Verdi's "Otello" | url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE3D9123DF934A35750C0A966958260 | work=New York Times | date=1990-03-07 | accessdate=2007-10-14] and "Der Rosenkavalier" [cite news | author=Donal Henehan | title=Sweeping "Rosenkavalier" at the Met | url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE3DA123BF934A1575AC0A966958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all | work=New York Times | date=1990-09-27 | accessdate=2007-10-14] .

Kleiber largely kept out of the public eye and reportedly never gave an official interview. [ [http://arts.guardian.co.uk/features/story/0,11710,1266018,00.html Martin Kettle, "A rare touch of musical magic". "The Guardian", 1 January 1990.] ] . After his resignation from the Bavarian State Opera, his appearances became less frequent, and he made only a few recordings. Most of these are regarded as very fine recordings; his versions of Ludwig van Beethoven's fifth and seventh symphonies with the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra and of the Symphony No. 4 (Beethoven) with the Bavarian State Orchestra are particularly notable. Other notable recordings include Johannes Brahms' Symphony No. 4 and Franz Schubert's third and eighth ("Unfinished") symphonies, also with the Vienna Philharmonic, recordings of Dvořák's Concerto for piano and orchestra with Sviatoslav Richter, Carl Maria von Weber's "Der Freischütz", Johann Strauss' "Die Fledermaus", Giuseppe Verdi's "La Traviata" and Richard Wagner's "Tristan und Isolde". Despite their acclaimed conducting, Kleiber's opera recordings have often been accused of poor casting.

Preserved performances

Kleiber's unique conducting style is preserved on video in a number of performances: Beethoven's Symphony No. 4 and Symphony No. 7 from the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam, [cite news | author=Bernard Holland | title=Conducting for Cultists: Beethoven From Kleiber | url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE7D91F3FF93AA25755C0A961948260 | work=New York Times | date=1987-06-19 | accessdate=2007-10-14] Johann Strauss' "Die Fledermaus" from Munich, Richard Strauss' "Der Rosenkavalier" from both Munich and Vienna, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's 36th symphony and Brahms' second symphony from the Musikverein in Vienna and Beethoven's Coriolan Overture, Mozart's 33rd and Brahms' fourth symphonies from Munich and Bizet's Carmen. He led the New Year's Concert of the Vienna Philharmonic in 1989 and 1992, and these are both preserved on video.

Impact

He effectively retired from concert life in the early 1990s, occasionally appearing to give private concerts or benefit concerts. For one such event, instead of the usual fee, Kleiber received a new Audi made to his specifications. In the opinion of many of his colleagues and audiences who have experienced his meticulously rehearsed but ever spontaneous and inspired performances, this eccentric genius is perhaps the greatest conductor of all time, first among equals, despite the paucity of his appearances. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A63106-2004Jul19.html Schudel, Matt (20 July 2004) "Obituraries: Gifted, Eccentric Conductor Carlos Kleiber Dies at 74" "Washington Post", Washington D.C. p. B06;] ] ["Kleiber, Carlos" "Current Biography Yearbook" 1991 edition, H.W. Wilson Co., New York, p.338] [Bernheimer, Martin (October 2004) "Obituaries: Carlos Kleiber" "Opera News" 69(4): p.85;] [ [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4155/is_20040720/ai_n12555577 Kakaviatos, Panos (20 July, 2004) "Carlos Kleiber, 74, widely admired conductor" "Chicago Sun-Times"] ] [ [http://arts.guardian.co.uk/news/obituary/0,,1265571,00.html Alan Blyth, obituary for Carlos Kleiber, "The Guardian", 21 July 2004.] ]

He is buried in the Slovenian village of Konjšica near Litija together with his wife Stanislava Brezovar, a ballet dancer, who died 7 months earlier. ["Obituary section: Kleiber, Carlos" "Current Biography Yearbook" 2004 edition, H.W. Wilson Co., New York, p. 650;] He and his wife had two children, a son, Marko, and a daughter, Lillian.

Official discography (complete)

*1973: Carl Maria von Weber: "Der Freischütz", Staatskapelle Dresden, DG. Soloists: Gundula Janowitz, Edith Mathis, Peter Schreier, Theo Adam, Bernd Weikl, Siegfried Vogel, Franz Crass.
*1974: Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 5, Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, Deutsche Grammophon.
*1975: Johann Strauss II: "Die Fledermaus", Orchestra of the Bavarian State Opera, Munich, Deutsche Grammophon. Soloists: Hermann Prey, Julia Varady, Lucia Popp, René Kollo, Ivan Rebroff, Bernd Weikl.
*1975-1976: Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 7, Vienna Philharmonic, Deutsche Grammophon.
*1976: Antonín Dvořák: Concerto for piano and orchestra, Orchestra of the Bavarian State Opera, EMI. Piano: Sviatoslav Richter.
*1976-1977: Giuseppe Verdi: "La Traviata", Orchestra of the Bavarian State Opera, Deutsche Grammophon. Soloists: Ileana Cotrubaş, Plácido Domingo, Sherrill Milnes.
*1978: Franz Schubert: Symphony No. 3, Vienna Philharmonic, Deutsche Grammophon.
*1978: Franz Schubert: Symphony No. 8 "Unfinished", Vienna Philharmonic, Deutsche Grammophon.
*1980: Johannes Brahms: Symphony No. 4, Vienna Philharmonic, Deutsche Grammophon [ [http://arts.guardian.co.uk/keynotes/story/0,,608974,00.html Andrew Clements, "Brahms: Symphony No. 4". "The Guardian", 17 March 2000.] ] .
*1980-1982: Richard Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde", Staatskapelle Dresden, Deutsche Grammophon. Soloists: René Kollo, Margaret Price, Brigitte Fassbänder, Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Kurt Moll.
*1982-1983: Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 4, Symphony No. 6, Symphony No. 7, Orchestra of the Bavarian State Opera, Orfeo.
*1989: Vienna New Year's Concert, Vienna Philharmonic, Sony.
*1992: Vienna New Year's Concert, Vienna Philharmonic, Sony.

Official DVD releases

*1970: "The Great conductors", TDK and Arthaus. Overtures: "Der Freischutz" & "Die Fledermaus" Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra (rehearsals)
*1978: Georges Bizet: "Carmen", Vienna Philharmonic, TDK. Soloists: Elena Obraztsova, Plácido Domingo, Yuri Mazurok, Isobel Buchanan.
*1979: Richard Strauss: "Der Rosenkavalier", Orchestra of the Bavarian State Opera, Deutsche Grammophon. Soloists: Gwyneth Jones, Brigitte Fassbaender, Lucia Popp, Francisco Araiza.
*1983: Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 4, Symphony No. 7, Concertgebouw Orchestra Amsterdam, Philips.
*1986: Johann Strauss II: "Die Fledermaus", Orchestra of the Bavarian State Opera, Deutsche Grammophon. Soloists: Pamela Coburn, Brigitte Fassbaender, Janet Perry, Eberhard Wächter.
*1989: Vienna New Year's Concert, Vienna Philharmonic, Deutsche Grammophon.
*1991: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Symphony No. 36, Johannes Brahms: Symphony No. 2, Vienna Philharmonic, Philips.
*1992: Vienna New Year's Concert, Vienna Philharmonic, Philips.
*1994: Richard Strauss: "Der Rosenkavalier", Orchestra of the Vienna State Opera, Deutsche Grammophon. Soloists: Felicity Lott, Kurt Moll, Anne Sofie von Otter, Gottfried Hornik, Barbara Bonney, Heinz Zednik.
*1996: Ludwig van Beethoven: "Coriolan" Overture, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Symphony No. 33, Johannes Brahms: Symphony No. 4 , Orchestra of the Bavarian State Opera, Deutsche Grammophon.

References

ources

* Balestrazzi, Mauro: "Carlos Kleiber - Angelo o demone?", 2006, ISBN 88-8302-325-0 (in Italian)
* Fischer, Jens Malte: "Carlos Kleiber - Der skrupulöse Exzentriker", 2006, ISBN 3-8353-0138-1 (in German)
* Werner, Alexander: "Carlos Kleiber - Eine Biografie", 2007, ISBN 978-3-7957-0598-5 (in German)
* Vichev, Tomislav: "Kleiber's Era", 2003 (in Bulgarian)

External links

* [http://www.carlos-kleiber.de Biographer Werner`s site]
* [http://www.thrsw.com Erich and Carlos Kleiber site]
* [http://www.kleiber.hit.bg/en/ Kleiber's era]
* [http://www.cosmopolis.ch/english/music/55/carlos_kleiber.htm Biography of Carlos Kleiber]


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  • Kleiber — El término Kleiber puede hacer referencia a: Erich Kleiber (Viena, 5 de agosto de 1890 – 27 de enero de 1956), director de orquesta austríaco; Carlos Kleiber (Berlín, 3 de julio de 1930 Eslovenia, 13 de julio de 2004), director de orquesta… …   Wikipedia Español

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