Military History of the Philippines

Military History of the Philippines

=Pre-Colonial Period (Pre-1565)=

Battle of Mactan

The Battle of Mactan on April 21, 1521 is the earliest reported resistance of the natives in the Philippines against foreign invaders. Lapu-Lapu, a chieftain of Mactan Island, defeated Spanish colonizers led by the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan.On April 27, 1521, warriors of Lapu-Lapu, a chieftain of Mactan, defeated and killed Magellan at the Battle of Mactan.

After Magellan landed on the island of Homonhon March 16, 1521, he parleyed with Rajah Calambu of Limasawa, who guided him to Cebu Island on April 7. Through Magellan's interpreter, Enrique, Rajah Humabon of Cebu became an ally. Suitably impressed by Magellan's 12 cannons and 50 cross-bows, Rajah Humabon suggested that Magellan project power to cow Lapu-Lapu of Mactan.

Magellan deployed 48 armored men, less than half his crew, with cross-bows and guns, but could not land on Mactan since the island has a coral shoreline and lacks anchorage suitable for Spanish galleons. His crew had to wade through the surf to make landing. Eight crewmen were killed. Antonio Pigafetta, a supernumerary on the voyage who later returned to Seville, Spain, records that Lapu-Lapu had at least 1500 warriors in the battle.

Magellan was wounded in the leg, while still in the surf. As the crew were retreating, they record that Magellan was surrounded by natives and killed.

panish Colonial Period (1565-1898)

Major Revolts

*Dagami Revolt (1567)
* Manila Revolt (1574)
* Pampanga Revolt (1585)
*Conspiracy of the Maharlikas (1587-1588)
*Dingras Revolt (1589)
*Cagayan Revolt (1589)
*Magalat Revolt (1596)
*Igorot Revolt (1601)
* Irraya or Gaddang Revolt (1621)
* Tamblot Revolt (1621-1622)
* Bankaw Revolt (1621-1622)
* Isneg Revolt (1625-1627)
* CARAGA Revolt (1639)
* Cagayan Revolt (1639)
* Ladia Revolt (1643)
* Zambales Revolt (1645)
* Pampanga Revolt (1645)
*Sumuroy Revolt (1649-1650)
* Pintados Revolt (1649-1650)
* Zambal Revolt (1660)
* Maniago Revolt (1660)
* Malong Revolt (1660-1661)
* Ilocano Revolt (1661)
* Tapar Revolt (1663)
* Zambal Revolt (1681-1683)
* Rivera Revolt (1718)
* Magtanĝaga Revolt (1718)
* Caragay Revolt (1719)
*Dagohoy Revolt (1744-1829)
* Agrarian Revolts in Bulacan, Cavite, Batangas, Laguna and Morong (1745-1746)
* Palaris Revolt (1762-1765)
* Camarines Revolt (1762-1764)
* Cebu Revolt (1762-1764)
* Dabo and Marayac Revolt (1763)
* Isabela Revolt (1763)
* Lagutao Revolt (1785)
* Ilocos Norte Revolt (1788)
* Magtanong and Malibiran Revolt (1787)
* Nueva Vizcaya Revolt (1805)
* Ambaristo Revolt (1807)
* Ilocos Norte Revolt (1811)
* Sarat Revolt (1815)
* Bayot Revolt (1822)
* Parang and Upay Revolt (1822-1835)
* Pule Revolt (1840-1841)
* Camerino Revolt (1865-1869)
* Labios Revolt (1870-1871)
* Cavite Mutiny (1872)

Moro Campaign (1569-1898)

* Battle of Cebu (1569)
* Spanish-Moro Incident (1570)
* Jolo Holy War (1578-1580)
* Cotabato Revolt (1597)
* Spanish-Moro Incident (1602)
* Basilan Revolt (1614)
* Kudarat Revolt (1625)
*Battle of Jolo (1628)
* Sulu Revolt (1628)
* Lanao Lamitan Revolt (1637)
* Battle of Punta Flechas (1638)
* Sultan Bungsu Revolt (1638)
* Mindanao Revolt (1638)
* Lanao Revolt (1639)
* Sultan Salibansa Revolt (1639)
* Corralat Revolt (1649)
* Spanish-Moro Incident (1876)

Limahong Campaign (1574-1576)

Cambodia Campaign (1596)

*Cambodia Expedition (1596)

Eighty Years' War (1568-1648)

*Battle of Cavite (1600)
* Moluccas Expedition (1606)
*Siege of Manila (1609-1610)
*Formosa Expedition (1626-1627)
*Battle of La Naval (1646)
* Battle of Puerto de Cavite (1647)
*Battle of Abucay (1647)

Chinese Insurrections (1603-1640)

*First Chinese Insurrection (1603)
*Second Chinese Insurrection (1639-1640)

even Years' War (1756-1763)

*Battle of Manila (1762)
*Silang Revolt (1762-1763)
**Diego Silang
**Gabriela Silang

French Indochina Campaign (1858-1862)

* Battle of Da Nang (1858) [Citation
title=Filipino Involvement in the French-Spanish Campaign in Indochina
author=Nigel Gooding

Philippine Revolution and Declaration of Independence (1896-1898)

Philippine Revolution (1896-1898)

The Philippine Revolution, the first against western colonial rule in Asia, was directed against Spain which had colonized the Philippines since 1565. The Revolution against Spain had two phases: the first from the declaration of defiance against Spanish rule on August 23, 1896 till the conclusion of a truce in December 1897; the second from the return till the outbreak of the Filipino-American War in February 1899.

After over three centuries of Spanish colonial rule characterized by unenlightened government, outright exploitation of the Indios (the term used to apply to the indigenous population of Filipinos), suppression of the mestizos and the insulares (Spaniards born in the Philippines), belated and half-hearted attempts at reform, and on the part of the governed, countless sporadic and isolated revolts and other forms of resistance, the Philippine Revolution exploded on August 23, 1896, in the event that is commemorated as the "Cry of Pugadlawin." Located in the outskirts of Manila, there assembled on that day members of a secret revolutionary society known as the Kataastaasang Kagalanggalang na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Katipunan) -- Highest and Most Respectable Society of the Sons of the People, founded in July 1892), led by its founder, Andres Bonifacio, and there tore up their cedulas (identification receipts issued for payment of taxes) as a symbol of their determination to take up arms against Spain.

The seeds of revolution were, in fact, sown earlier in the nineteenth century when Spain's enforced isolation of the Philippines was shattered with the opening of the country to foreign commerce and the resulting development of an export economy by non-Spanish foreign enterprises (British, American, Chinese). Revolutionary and liberal movements in Europe and elsewhere, in addition to the persistence of friar autocratic rule, brought winds of change in the political climate in the Philippines. The most important event which possibly made the Revolution inevitable was that of February 17,1872, when three Filipino secular priests, leaders in the movement for the secularization (in effect, nationalization) of Philippine parishes, were executed publicly by garrote for their supposed complicity in a military mutiny at a Cavite arsenal on January 20, 1872. By linking them with the mutiny, the Spanish administration, with the instigation of Spanish friars, found a convenient way of doing away with the troublesome priests, considered by them as filibusteros (anyone who showed any radical tendencies) for demanding clerical equality with the Spanish friars.

The first manifestation of Philippine nationalism followed in the decades of the 1880s and the 1890s, with a reform or propaganda movement, conducted both in Spain and in the Philippines, for the purpose of "propagandising" Philippine conditions in the hopes that desired changes in the social, political and economic life of the Filipinos would come about through peaceful means. The propaganda movement failed to secure the desired reforms, especially the expulsion of the friars and their replacement by Filipino secular priests and equality before the law between Spaniards and Filipinos, largely because the Spanish friars used their power and resources to thwart the activities of the Filipino ilustrados (educated Filipinos who led the movement).

The revolutionary society, Katipunan, was established, on July 7,1892, by Filipinos who had given up hope that the Spanish government would administer the affairs of Filipinos in the interests of its subjects—with justice and dignity. A secret association patterned after Freemasonry and the La Liga Filipina (a mutual-aid society founded by the ilustrado Jose Rizal on July 3, 1892), it recruited members in the suburbs of Manila and in the provinces of Central Luzon. By the time of the outbreak of the Revolution in August 1896, membership in the Katipunan has soared to about 30,000, which included some women. The Revolution broke out prematurely on August 23, 1896 because of the untimely discovery by a Spanish friar, on August 19, of the existence of the revolutionary society. The immediate result of the outbreak of the Revolution was the institution of a reign of terror by the Spanish authorities in an attempt to frighten the population into submission. Hundreds suspected of joining the Katipunan and the Revolution were arrested and jailed; prominent Filipinos were shipped to exile to the Carolines or the Spanish penal colony in Africa (Fernando Po); and still others were executed, including Jose Rizal, who was executed by musketry on December 30, 1896. The Revolution spread from Manila and Cavite to Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, and Nueva Ecija represented as the eight rays in the Philippine flag.

Andres Bonifacio led the Revolution in its early stages, although he did not excel in the field of battle. Internal rivalry led to the division of the ranks within the Katipunan organization and with the execution of Bonifacio in May 1897 (charged with sedition and treason), leadership of the Revolution fell into the hands of another Katipunan member from Cavite, Emilio Aguinaldo, who distinguished himself in the battlefields in Cavite, at that time the heartland of the Revolution.

The first phase of the Revolution ended inconclusively, with both Filipino and Spanish forces unable to pursue hostilities to a successful conclusion. Consequently, between November 18 and December 15, a truce which resulted in a temporary cessation of hostilities was concluded Biak-na-Bato between the two sides. Aguinaldo agreed to go on temporary exile to Hong Kong after the Spanish government compensated him and his revolutionary junta with a sum described in the agreement as "$800,000 (Mexican)" in three installments.Citation
url =
title =True Version of the Philippine Revolution
author =Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy
work =Authorama Public Domain Books
chapter=Chapter II. The Treaty of Biak-na-bató
] . The truce failed as both sides entered the agreement in bad faith—neither was really willing to abandon hostilities but were biding time and resources to resume the armed conflict. [cite web
title=History of the Philippine Revolution: The Katipunan Revolution
author=Dr. Bernardita Reyes Churchill

* Battle of Binakayan
* Battle of Dalahican

panish-American War (1898)

The first battle was in the sea near the Philippines where, on May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey, commanding the United States Pacific fleet aboard the USS "Olympia", in a matter of hours, defeated the Spanish squadron, under Admiral Patricio Montojo y Pasarón, while sustaining only one casualty because of a heart attack at the Battle of Manila Bay.

Meanwhile, Dewey allowed Emilio Aguinaldo to return to the Philippines. Aguinaldo's forces attacked the Spanish on land, successfully defeating them, and ended with the Battle of Manila (July 25 1898 - August 13 1898) where the Spanish surrendered Manila, but the U.S. Army made a deal to protect them from Filipino persecution.

On June 12, 1898, the independence of the Philippines was declared, recognizing, approving, ratifying, and with all orders emanating from "the Dictatorship established by Don Emilio Aguinaldo". (for details see "Philippine Declaration of Independence"). The Act of the Declaration of Independence was prepared and written by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista in Spanish, who also read the said declaration. The Philippine Declaration was signed by ninety-eight persons, among them an American army officer who witnessed the proclamation. The dictatorial government was replaced on June 23, 1898 by a revolutionary government headed by Emilio Aguinaldo as president, and the First Philippine Republic was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 23, 1899. The Spanish-American war, which was still ongoing at that time, was formally ended on December 10, 1898 by the Treaty of Paris between the United States and Spain. In that treaty, Spain ceded the Philippine Archipelago to the United States in return for a payment of $20,000,000. [ [ Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain] ] The United States then exercised sovereignty over the Philippines.

*Battle of Manila Bay
*Battle of Manila
*Siege of Baler

American Colonial Period (1899-1941)

Philippine-American War (1899-1913)

The Philippine-American War [This conflict is also known as the 'Philippine Insurrection'. This name was historically the most commonly used in the U.S., but Filipinos and some American historians refer to these hostilities as the "Philippine-American War", and, in 1999, the U.S. Library of Congress reclassified its references to use this term.] was a conflict between the United States of America and the First Philippine Republic from 1899 through at least 1902, when the Filipino leadership generally accepted American rule. A Philippine Constabulary was organized in 1901 to deal with the remnants of the insurgent movement and gradually assume the responsibilities of the United States Army. Skirmishes between government troops and armed groups lasted until 1913, and some historians consider these unofficial extensions part of the war.cite book | author= Constantino, Renato| title= The Philippines: A Past Revisited| year=1975| id=ISBN 971-8958-00-2]

World War I (1914-1918)

In 1917 the Philippine Assembly created the Philippine National Guard with the intent to join the American Expeditionary Force. By the time it was absorbed into the National Army it had grown to 25,000 soldiers. However, these units did not see action.The first Filipino to die in World War I was Private Tomas Claudio who served with the U.S. Marine Corps as part of the American Expeditionary Forces to Europe. He died in the Battle of Chateau Thierry in France on June 29, 1918. [citation
title=America’s Thanksgiving and the Philippines’ National Heroes Day: Two Holidays Rooted in History and Tradition
author=Zena Sultana-Babao
publisher=Asian Journal
] [Source: Philippine Military Academy] The Thomas Claudio Memorial College in Eastern Rizal, Philippines, which was founded in 1950, was named in his honor. [cite web
title=Schools, colleges and Universities: Tomas Claudio Memorial College
publisher=Manila Bulletin Online

- cite web
title=Thomas Claudio Memorial College

World War II (1939-1945)

The first Filipino serviceman casualty was a military aviator serving in the Commonwealth Forces during the Second World War. First Officer Isidro Juan Paredes was killed in action in France on November 7, 1941 while serving with the U.K. Royal Air Force (RAF). [Citation
title=Paredes, Isidro Juan
publisher=Commonwealth War Graves Commission
] His body was repatriated to the Philippines. Details of his death are registered at the Maindenhead Register of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, where his nationality is recorded as "United Kingdom". [Citation
title=Casualty Details: Paredes, Isidro Juan
publisher=Commonwealth War Graves Commission
] The Paredes Air Station in Ilocos Norte (in Northern Philippines) is named in his honor. The air station was the US Air Force's citadel in the 1960s.

WWII Veterans are members of the following:
*U.S. Army Forces Far East (USAFFE)
*Philippine Scouts (PS)
* [Military history of the Philippines during_World War_II#The_Army Philippine_Commonwealth#The Army Philippine Commonwealth|Philippine Commonwealth Army]
*Recognized Guerilla Units

Japanese Invasion (8 December 1941 - 8 May 1942)

*Battle of the Philippines (1941-1942)
**Battle of Bataan
**Battle of Corregidor

Japanese Occupation (8 May 1942 - 2 September 1945)

*Jose P. Laurel
*Japanese Atrocities
**Bataan Death March
**Comfort Women

Philippine Campaigns (1944-1945)

*Battle of Leyte Gulf
*Battle for the Liberation of Manila

Korean War (1950-1953)

The Philippines joined the Korean War in August of 1950. The Philippines sent an expeditionary force of around 7,500 combat troops. This was known as the Philippine Expeditionary Forces To Korea, or PEFTOK. It was the 4th largest force under the United Nations Command. The PEFTOK took part in decisive battles such as the Battle of Yultong Bridge and the Battle of Hill Eerie. This expeditionary force operated with the United States 1st Cavalry Division, 3rd Infantry Division, 25th Infantry Division, and 45th Infantry Division. [Citation
title=The Philippines in the Korean War
author=Art Villasanta

*Battle of Yultong Bridge
*Battle of Hill Eerie

Vietnam War (1965-1973)

The Philippines was involved in the Vietnam War. The country sent a total of 1,450 soldiers for civil and medical operations. This force was known as the Philippine Civil Affairs Assistance Group or PHILCAG-V. [Citation
title=The Philippines: Allies During The Vietnam War

Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)

The Philippines sent 200 medical personnel to assist coalition forces in the liberation of Kuwait.

Iraq War (2003-2004)

The Philippines sent 60 medics, engineers and other troops to assist in the invasion of Iraq. The troops were withdrawn on the 14th of July, 2004, in response to the kidnapping of Angelo dela Cruz, a Filipino truck driver. When insurgent demands were met (Filipino troops out of Iraq), the hostage was released. While in Iraq, the troops were under Polish command (Central South Iraq). During that time, several Filipino soldiers were wounded in an insurgent attack, although none died.

Communist Insurgency in the Philippines

"Early 1950s to present"
*New People's ArmyIn the year 2006 President Arroyo ordered the military to end this conflict once and for all. [cite news
title=Philippines to pursue offensive against communist rebels
date=July 5, 2005
publisher=Yahoo News Asia
] Failed verification|date=July 2007

Islamic Insurgency in the Philippines

"Late 1960s to present"
*2001 Mindanao "All-out" War
*Abu Sayyaf Conflict
**The Burnham Hostage Crisis
**The Maundy Thursday Rescue
**Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines

List of International Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Missions

* UN Command in Korea (UNC), 1950-55
** Philippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea (PEFTOK)
* UN Operation in the Congo (ONUC, or l'Operation des Nations Unies au Congo, 1963
* Philippine Medical Mercy Mission to Indonesia, 1963
* Free World Assistance Program in Vietnam, 1964-70
** Philippine Contingent, Vietnam (PHILCONV)
** Philippine Civic Action Group, Republic of Vietnam, I (First PHILCAGV)
** Philippine Civic Action Group, Republic of Vietnam (Second PHILCAGV)
** Philippine Contingent, Vietnam (PHILCAGV rear party)
* UN Guards Contingent in Iraq (UNGCI), 1991-92
** First Philippine-UN Guards Contingent in Iraq (PUNGCI-1)
** Second Philippine-UN Guards Contingent in Iraq (PUNGCI-2)
** Third Philippine-UN Guards Contingent in Iraq (PUNGCI-3)
** Fourth Philippine-UN Guards Contingent in Iraq (PUNGCI-4)
** Fifth Philippine-UN Guards Contingent in Iraq (PUNGCI-5, -5A, -5B, -5C)
** Sixth Philippine-UN Guards Contingent in Iraq (PUNGCI-6A, -6B, -6C, -6D)
** Seventh Philippine-UN Guards Contingent in Iraq (PUNGCI-7A, -7B)
** Eighth Philippine-UN Guards Contingent in Iraq (PUNGCI-8A, -8B)
** Ninth Philippine-UN Guards Contingent in Iraq (PUNGCI-9A, -9B, -9C)
** Tenth Philippine-UN Guards Contingent in Iraq (PUNGCI-10A)
* UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC), 1992-93
** Republic of the Philippines Contingent to UNTAC (RP-UNTAC)
* International Force East Timor, 1999
** Philippine Humanitarian Support for East Timor (PhilHSMET)
* UN Transitional Administration in East Timor, 1999
* Henry Dunant Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue Aceh Monitoring Movement (HAMM), 2002-03
** AFP Contingent to the HAMM International Monitoring Team
* UN Mission of Support in East Timor, 2002
* Philippine Humanitarian Contingent to Iraq, 2003-04
* UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), 2004-present
** First Philippine Contingent to Liberia (1PCL)
** Second Philippine Contingent to Liberia (2PCL)
** Third Philippine Contingent to Liberia (3PCL)
** Fourth Philippine Contingent to Liberia (4PCL)
** Fifth Philippine Contingent to Liberia (5PCL)
** Sixth Philippine Contingent to Liberia (6PCL)
** Seventh Philippine Contingent to Liberia (7PCL)
** Eighth Philippine Contingent to Liberia (8PCL)
** Ninth Philippine Contingent to Liberia (9PCL)
* UN Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (ONUCI, or l'Operation des Nations Unies en Cote d'Ivoire), 2004-present
* UN Mission in Burundi (ONUB, or l'Operation des Nations Unies au Burundi), 2004-06
* UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH, or l'Operation des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation en Haiti), 2004-present
** First Philippine Contingent to Haiti (1PCH)
** Second Philippine Contingent to Haiti (2PCH)
** Third Philippine Contingent to Haiti (3PCH)
** Fourth Philippine Contingent to Haiti (4PCH)
** Fifth Philippine Contingent to Haiti (5PCH)
** Sixth Philippine Contingent to Haiti (6PCH)
** Seventh Philippine Contingent to Haiti (7PCH)
* UN Office in Timor-Leste (UNOTIL), 2005-06
* European Union Aceh Monitoring Mission, 2005-06
* UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS), 2005-present
* UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT), 2006-present

(Source: AFP Peacekeeping Operations Center)

List of Coups d'Etat

*Honasan Coup d'états-(1987, 1989)
*On December 1, 1989, Air Force officers had joined an anti-government revolt, which threatened to destabilize the nation. Faced with a difficult choice, then Major Danilo Atienza, Squadron Commander of the 6th Tactical Fighter Squadron(now unmanned), 5th Fighter Wing (now Air Defense Wing), Fightertown, Basa Air Base equipped with F-5 aircraft, placed his loyalty to the national security of the Philippines and turned his F-5 fighter aircraft against the rebels who established a stronghold at Sangley Field. In bombing and strafing runs, amid heavy rebel ground fire, he and two other fighter pilots - 1st Lieutenants Ariel Quijano and Antonio Arturo Avaricio destroyed one Sikorsky helicopter, seven T-28s and a fuel depot, depriving the rebel soldiers of air power. The gallant feat helped turn the tide of battle in the government's favor. Major Danilo S Atienza was killed in action that day. In return, a grateful nation-led by President Corazon C. Aquino and the Armed Forces found him deserving of a Filipino warrior's highest award: the Medal of Valor. On May 5, 1992, by an act of Congress, the airfield at Sangley Point Naval and Air Training Station on which Major Danilo S. Atienza shed his blood was named after him. For their heroic action that day, 1st Lieutenants Quijano and Avaricio were awarded Distinguished Conduct Stars, the second highest military award for heroism. (Source: with additional information provided by the Officers and Men of the 6th Tactical Fighter Squadron, 5th Fighter Wing, Philippine Air Force)

*Ended with the final surrender of Scout Rangers in Makati
*Coups against Gloria Arroyo
**Oakwood Mutiny -The Oakwood Mutiny refers to a short-lived event which occurred in 27 July 2003 when members of the Philippine Marine Corps and Army took hold of the Glorietta Mall and the Oakwood Premier Condominium in Makati City. "See Oakwood Mutiny"
**2006 state of emergency in the Philippines
**Manila Peninsula Mutiny

List of Treaties

*Treaty of Paris (1763) "(minor role)"
*Treaty of Paris (1898)
*The National Defense Act of 1935 - In 1935 The National Defense Act of 1935 was enacted. President-elect Manuel L. Quezon convinced Chief of Staff of the United States Army General Douglas MacArthur to act as the military adviser to the Commonwealth of the Philippines. MacArthur was given the title "Military Advisor to the Commonwealth Government" and tasked with establishing a system of national defense, for the Philippines, by 1946. For a time, MacArthur would also act as the Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.
*Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) "(dissolved)"
* [ Mutual Defense Treaty between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America (1951)]
*RP-US Visiting Forces Agreement
**BALIKATAN - "Shoulder to Shoulder" Joint US-Philippines Military Exercises

List of Awards

*Philippine Legion of Honor
*Philippine Medal of Valor
*Philippine Distinguished Service Cross
*Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal
*WWII Victory Medal
*Philippine Liberation Medal
*Philippine Defense Medal
*Philippine Independence Medal
*Philippine Presidential Unit Citation

List of Major Battles

*Battle of Manila
*Battle of Bataan
*Battle of Mactan
*Battle of Corregidor
*Battle of Luzon
*Battle of Leyte
*Battle of Tirad Pass
*Battle of Pulang Lupa
* Battle of Balangiga

List of Wars Involving the Philippines

*Eighty Years' War
*Seven Years' War
* French Indochina Campaign
*Philippine Revolution
*Spanish-American War
*Philippine-American War
*World War I
*World War II
*Cold War
**Korean War
**Vietnam War
**Communist Insurgencies
*Kosovo War
*Gulf War
*War on Terror
** Operation Enduring Freedom
**Islamic Insurgencies
* Iraq War
* East Timor War

ee also

*Armed Forces of the Philippines
*Philippine Air Force
*Philippine Navy
*Philippine Marine Corps
*Philippine Army
*Philippine Constabulary
* Military History of the Philippines During World War II
*History of the Philippines
*Presidential Security Group / Presidential Security Command
*Filipino Special Forces
*General Alfredo M. Santos - the first four-star general of the Philippine Army and the Armed Forces of the Philippines (1963)


External links

* [ Philippine Presidential Security Group]
* [ Comparative Analysis of the Use of Foreign Military Sales (FMS) and Direct Commercial Sales (DCS) in the Procurement of US Defense Articles by the Philippine Government for the Use of the Armed Forces of the Philippines] , Remegio M. de Vera, June 2004, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL, MONTEREY CA

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