Fistfight

Fistfight

Fistfight (Russian - Кулачный бой, Kulachniy Boy) is a Russian ancient combat sport similar to the modern boxing. It existed since the times of ancient Rus, but lost most of it's popularity in the 20th century. The earliest accounts about the sport are from the 13th century. [http://istina.rin.ru/cgi-bin/print.pl?sait=6&id=2855 "Летописцы наши говорят об ней, еще в начале XIII в." (Our sources talked about it already at the 13th century)]

History

The sport existed since the times of ancient Rus, with the earliest accounts about the sport being from the 13th century. [http://istina.rin.ru/cgi-bin/print.pl?sait=6&id=2855 "Летописцы наши говорят об ней, еще в начале XIII в." (Our sources talked about it already at the 13th century)]

In two orders released in 1684 and 1686 fistfight was forbidden, but the sport continued to live. [cite book|last = Robert Nisbet| first = Bain|title = The Pupils of Peter the Great: A History of the Russian Court and Empire from 1697 to 1740|publisher = A. Constable and Co.|date = 1897|location=Westminster|pages = p.89|url = http://books.google.com/books?id=7NQKAAAAIAAJ|isbn = 978-0548050071 ...Thus a Ukaz was issued to put a stop to the brutality of the Kulachny boi, or fist-fight. This popular game was not abolished, but those who chose to amuse themselves thereby, were to do so, in future, under police supervision...] [http://istina.rin.ru/cgi-bin/print.pl?sait=6&id=2855 "Указами 1684 года ноября 2, 1686 года марта 19 и другими, строго воспрещались кулачные бои... Было время, что старики, воспламеняя умы молодых людей, несбыточными рассказами об удальстве бойцов, пробуждали в них страсть к кулачному бою." (With orders released in 1684, and 1686, Fistfights were forbidden... The old people, with their stories about the sport encouraged the young people to continue with it)]

All regions had their heroes at that sport, but the region with the most famous once historically is Tula. [http://istina.rin.ru/cgi-bin/print.pl?sait=6&id=2855 "Тульские бойцы и ныне славятся, но каждое место имело своих удальцов." (Tulas fighters were always glorious, but every place had it's heroes)] [http://bibliotekar.ru/rusSaharov/129.htm "Лучшими бойцами один на один считались тульские" (The best fighters in one on one were considered Tulas fighters)]

The sport as mass entertainment

Russian boyars as entertainment brought the best fighters. [http://bibliotekar.ru/rusSaharov/129.htm "Было время, когда русские бояре, собравшись повеселиться, свозили из разных городов бойцов для потешения." (There was a time, when Russian boyars, when came together to have fun, brought from different cities fighters for fun)]

The fights most often took place in holiday times and in crowded places. At winter it took place on ice. First the young children fought, then every pare was more grown up then the previous, and the last fighters were the most notable fistfighters. [http://www.infosport.ru/Press/SZR/0798/topic1.htm "лишь постепенно вводились в дело все более сильные отряды. Первыми выходили ребятишки, затем подростки, юноши, неженатые парни, а уж затем - взрослые мужчины." (Only after a while the strongest once were brought. The first were the kids, then teens, then lads, and only then grown up man)] [http://fist.com.ua/history/fisticuffs.php "Бои происходили обыкновенно в праздничные дни и при жилых местах, а зимой чаще всего на льду. Сначала пускали вперед как бы застрельщиков, мальчишек. За ними мало-по-малу группировались более взрослые, но главная партия противников оставалась в резерве, особенно известные по своей силе и искусству бойцы." (The fights usually took place at holidays and in rural areas, and in winter most often on ice. First the boys were let in, and then more and more grown ups. The best fighters were kept for the end)]

Legacy

In 1941 the most important then Soviet specialist in Boxing, K.V. Gradopolov, wrote a book about the right way to fight with fists. In that book, he offered a new exercise, called "group boxing", and he mentioned it was an ancient Russian sport (what he talked about was the "Stenka na Stenku" version). [http://www.infosport.ru/Press/SZR/0798/topic1.htm "1941 году ведущий советский специалист по боксу К. В. Градополов рассказывал в своей книге о методах обучения воинов кулачному прикладному искусству. Предлагалось там такое необычное упражнение, как «групповой бокс». Автор прямо указывал, что «прообразом группового бокса (организованного и ограниченного определенными правилами) является русский самобытный народный спорт «стенка на стенку»." (In 1941 the leading Soviet specialist in boxing K.V. Gradopolov told in his box about methods to teach soldiers how to fight with fists. He there offered a new exercise, "group boxing". He their said that the prototype of the "group boxing" was the Russian folk sport "Wall on Wall")]

Rules and types

In every region in Russia existed different rules. Unlike boxing. In some places they fought with bare arms, while in other they stretched the sleeves over the fists. There were cases where participants would cheat by putting iron under their sleeves. [http://bibliotekar.ru/rusSaharov/129.htm "Часто случалось, что хитрые и слабые бойцы закладывали в рукавицы бабки-чугунки для поражения противников." (Often it occurred, that weak fighters inserted into their sleeves iron)]

There are three types of Fistfight: the first is the singles type, a one-on-one fight; the second type is a team fight also known as "wall on wall". The third one, "catch drop", was the least practiced. [http://bibliotekar.ru/rusSaharov/129.htm "Кулачные бои совершались разными видами. Более всех почитался: бой один на один, за ним—стена на стену, а менее всех сцеплялка-свалка." (There were different types of fistfight. The most famous was a one one one, after him the wall on wall, and the most least famous the catch-drop)] [http://www.infosport.ru/Press/SZR/0798/topic1.htm "Кулачный бой практиковался у нас в трех формах: один на один («сам на сам»), стенка на стенку и «сцеплялка–свалка»." (Fistfight was practiced in three ways. One on one, wall on wall, and catch-drop)] There were several versions of the singles fight. One version was like modern boxing, when one fighter hits the other wherever he wants or can. The other version is when everyone hits at a turn. Escape from punch, answering it not on turn, move asside were not allowed. All could be done was to use the hands to try to protect the more painful areas. [http://fist.com.ua/history/fisticuffs.php "Также существовал кулачный бой "удар на удар" или "раз за раз", когда противники наносили удары по очереди. Уклоняться от удара, отвечать на него, переступать ногами запрещалось, можно было лишь прикрыть руками наиболее уязвимые места." (There was also a fistfight "hit on hit" or "one for one", when the opponents gave punches on turn. Escape from punch, answering it not on turn, move aside was not allowed. All could be done was to use the hands to try to protect the more painful areas)] Victory could come in few cases: when one of the fighters falls, till first blood, or till one of the fighters gives up. [http://fist.com.ua/history/fisticuffs.php "Бились по различным правилам: - до сбивания на землю ударом (до трех сбиваний) - до первой крови - до сдачи противника и признания своего поражения. Также существовал кулачный бой "удар на удар" или "раз за раз", когда противники наносили удары по очереди. Уклоняться от удара, отвечать на него, переступать ногами запрещалось, можно было лишь прикрыть руками наиболее уязвимые места." (There were different types of rules. 1. Till one falls. 2. Till first blood. 3. Till one gives up.")]

A famous phrase in Russian, "Do not hit a man when he's down", has roots in that sport. [http://www.infosport.ru/Press/SZR/0798/topic1.htm "Одно из правил кулачного боя стало даже пословицей, символизирующей русское благородство в бою: «Лежачего не бьют»." (One of the rules of fistfight even turned into a well-known phrase, which showed the Russian nobility: "Do not hit a man when he's down")]

Fistfight in Russian popular culture

Since for centuries fistfight was so popular and was such a port of the Russian folk life, [http://www.infosport.ru/Press/SZR/0798/topic1.htm "Широчайшей географией кулачных боев, их повсеместным распространением объяснялось то, что кроме русских в них со временем стали принимать участие и представители иных национальностей, обитавших в России: древняя чудь, татары, мордовцы. И многие другие." (The wide territory the fistfight was practiced on brought the the sport to other nations like the Tatars, Mordvins, and many others)] it was many times met in Russian literature.

In the 19th century Sergei Aksakov watched famous fistfights in the Kuban frozen lake in Kazan, and later wrote about them in his "Story about student life". After many decades at the same lake in a "Wall on Wall" fought the young future world-famous opera singer Feodor Chaliapin, and he later wrote about it: "From one side came we, the Russians of Kazan, from the other side the nice people Tatars. We fought hard without feeling sorry for ourself, but never broke the historic rules of not to hit the one that is already done, not to hit with the legs, and not to put iron under the sleevs". [http://www.infosport.ru/Press/SZR/0798/topic1.htm "Еще в 1806 году С. Т. Аксаков наблюдал знаменитые кулачные бои в Казани, на льду озера Кабан, и впоследствии описал их в своем «Рассказе о студенческой жизни». А через восемь десятилетий в тех же боях азартно дрался великий русский артист Ф. И. Шаляпин. Уже увенчанный мировой славой, он делился дорогими его сердцу воспоминаниями: «Сходились с одной стороны мы, казанская Русь, с другой - добродушные татары. Дрались отчаянно, не щадя ни себя, ни противников. Но и в горячке яростной битвы никогда не нарушали установленных искони правил: лежачего не бить, присевшего на корточки - тоже, ногами не драться, тяжести в рукавицы не прятать»." (Already back in the 19th century Sergei Aksakov watched famous fistfights in the Kuban frozen lake in Kazan, and later wrote about them in his "Story about student life". After many decades at the same lake in a "Wall on Wall" fought the young future world-famous opera singer Feodor Chaliapin, and he later wrote about it: "From one side came we, the Russians of Kazan, from the other side the nice people Tatars. We fought hard without feeling sorry for ourself, but never broke the historic rules of not to hit the one that is already done, not to hit with the legs, and not to put iron under the sleeves")] In a more mature age, the yound Feodor Chaliapin was attacked by someone who wanted a female Feodor Chaliapin gained, but thanks to knowing fistfight he won. He wrote: "He jumped to beat me, and even thought I was afraid of the police, learning fistfight at the frozen lakes of Kazan helped me, and he humiliatingly lost". [http://www.infosport.ru/Press/SZR/0798/topic1.htm "Однажды, когда Федор уже начал взрослеть, навыки кулачного боя выручили его в критической ситуации. Его несчастный соперник в любви - городовой - попытался было поколотить начинающего хориста, но тот вовсе не забыл, как хаживал в стенке на озере Кабан, и крепко проучил блюстителя порядка. «Он бросился бить меня. Но хотя я очень боялся полиции, однако опыт казанских кулачных боев послужил мне на пользу, и городовой был посрамлен»." (In a more mature age, the yound Feodor Chaliapin was attacked by someone who wanted a female Feodor Chaliapin gained, but thanks to knowing fistfight he won. He wrote: "He jumped to beat me, and even though I was afraid of the police, learning fistfight at the frozen lakes of Kazan helped me, and he humiliatingly lost")]

The Russian poet Sergei Yesenin in his autobiography notes "About myself" told that his grandfather taught him to fistfight. [http://www.infosport.ru/Press/SZR/0798/topic1.htm "«Дедушка иногда сам поддразнивал на кулачку и часто говорил бабке: «Ты у меня, дура, его не трожь, он так крепче будет!». Так написал сам поэт в автобиографических заметках «О себе»." (Sometimes my grandfather teased me to fistfight and told my grandmother: "You, my stupid, don't touch him. That way he'll be tougher". That's what the poet himself wrote in the autobiographic notes "About Myself")]

One of the heroes in the book "Thief" by the Soviet novelist Leonid Leonov said: "In childhood, it happened, only in fistfights I found real friends... And was never wrong! Because only in a fight the whole human nature comes out". [http://www.infosport.ru/Press/SZR/0798/topic1.htm "Один из героев его романа «Вор» говорит: «В мальчишестве, бывало, только на кулашнике и подберешь себе приятеля... И ведь ни разу не ошибался! Это оттого, что именно в бою «вся людская повадка насквозь видна»." (One of the heroes in the book "Thief" by the Soviet novelist Leonid Leonov said: "In childhood, it happened, only in fistfights I found real friends... And was never wrong! Because only in a fight the whole human nature comes out")]

Trivia

* There was a claim brought up that the Russian nobility preferred fistfights over duels, but the scholars show that the nobility actually were against fistfights and preferred weapons. [http://www.jstor.org/pss/3086132 "There was a claim brought up that the Russian nobility preferred fistfights over duels, which is a lie because they have seen fistfighting as disgraceful"]

References

Links

* [http://bibliotekar.ru/rusSaharov/129.htm About the sport from the Russian ethnic games collection] (Russian)
* [http://www.infosport.ru/Press/SZR/0798/topic1.htm Fistfight in ancient Rus] (Russian)
* [http://fist.com.ua/ Kievan federation of fistfight] (Ukrainian)(Russian)
* [http://www.books4all.ru/description/1205.html A downloadable book about Russian fistfight] (Russian)
* [http://istina.rin.ru/cgi-bin/print.pl?sait=6&id=2855 An article about the Russian fistfight] (Russian)


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • fistfight — [fist′fīt΄] n. a fight with the fists …   English World dictionary

  • fistfight — 1. noun A fight using bare fists. Syn: fisticuffs, bare, hand, boxing, barehanded, knuckle, duking it out, hand to hand, com …   Wiktionary

  • fistfight — noun Date: 1603 a usually spontaneous fight with bare fists …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • fistfight — /fist fuyt /, n. a fight using bare fists. [1595 1605; FIST1 + FIGHT] * * * …   Universalium

  • fistfight — (Roget s Thesaurus II) noun A physical conflict involving two or more: fight, fisticuffs, scrap2, scuffle, tussle. Slang: rumble. See CONFLICT …   English dictionary for students

  • fistfight — n. brawl, fight using the fists, fisticuffs …   English contemporary dictionary

  • fistfight — fist•fight [[t]ˈfɪstˌfaɪt[/t]] n. a fight using bare fists • Etymology: 1595–1605 …   From formal English to slang

  • fistfight — /ˈfɪstfaɪt/ (say fistfuyt) noun a fight between two people in which they punch each other using their fists. Also, fist fight …   Australian-English dictionary

  • fistfight — I noun a fight with bare fists (Freq. 1) • Syn: ↑fisticuffs, ↑slugfest • Hypernyms: ↑fight, ↑fighting, ↑combat, ↑scrap …   Useful english dictionary

  • The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven — Infobox Book | name = The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven title orig = translator = image caption = author = Sherman Alexie illustrator = cover artist = country = United States language = English series = subject = genre = Short stories …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”