EUREKA, often abbreviated as "E!", is a pan-European
research and developmentfunding and coordination organisation. EUREKA aims to coordinate efforts of governments and commercial companies. It does not partake in, for example, military research.EUREKA was established with the "Paris Declaration" of July 17, 1985, and its principles are based on the later Hannover Declaration, subscribed by Ministers on November 6, 1985.
At this time of writing (October 2006), EUREKA has 38 full members, including the European Union, represented by the European Commission. Among the 38 members, all the present 27 EU Member States are also members of Eureka (the last EU Member State of the EU to join EUREKA was Malta, in June 2006). The
Russian Federationjoined in 1993.
Contrary to what many seemingly believe, EUREKA is not an EU research programme, but rather an inter-governmental initiative, of which the EU is a member. However, a large cooperation and synergy is sought between EUREKA and the research activities of the EU proper, notably with the EU Framework Programme for Research and Development.
EUREKA Projects are numbered, preceded by 'E!'. Notably, EUREKA co-funded and cooperated in the E!147 project. Technologies originating from E!147 include
Musicam, which was used as the basis for MPEG-1 Layer II(MP2) and used in DAB (Digital Audio Broadcast), and ASPEC (Adaptive Spectral Perceptual Entropy Coding), which was used in a modified form in MP3audio.
Other major projects are the E!95
HDTVproject, which set the worldwide standard for high definition television, the E!45 PROMETHEUS project, for safer road vehicles, such as through autonomous driving and the E!127 JESSIproject (Joint European Submicron Silicon), which has the goal regaining ground lost to Asia and the USA in microchips.
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