Trimeresurus flavoviridis

Trimeresurus flavoviridis

Taxobox
name = "Trimeresurus flavoviridis"



image_caption =
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
subphylum = Vertebrata
classis = Reptilia
ordo = Squamata
subordo = Serpentes
familia = Viperidae
subfamilia = Crotalinae
genus = "Trimeresurus"
species = "T. flavoviridis"
binomial = "Trimeresurus flavoviridis"
binomial_authority = (Hallowell, 1861)
synonyms = * "Bothrops flavoviridis" - Hallowell, 1861
* "Trimeresurus Riukiuanus" - Hilgendorf, 1880
* "T" ["rimeresurus"] . "flavoviridis" - Boulenger, 1890
* "Lachesis flavoviridis" - Boulenger, 1896
* "Trimeresurus riukiuanus" - Boulenger, 1896
* "Trimeresurus flavoviridis" - Takahashi, 1922
* "Trimeresurus flavoviridis tinkhami" - Gloyd, 1955
* "Trimeresurus flavoviridis flavoviridis" - Gloyd, 1955
* "Trimeresurus flavoviridis" - Taub, 1964
* "Protobothrops flavoviridis" - Hoge & Romano-Hoge, 1983
* "Trimeresurus flavoviridis" - Golay "et al.", 1993McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).]

:"Common names: habu,Gumprecht A, Tillack F, Orlov NL, Captain A, Ryabov S. 2004. Asian Pitvipers. GeitjeBooks Berlin. 1st Edition. 368 pp. ISBN 3-937975-00-4.] Okinawa habu,U.S. Navy. 1991. Poisonous Snakes of the World. US Govt. New York: Dover Publications Inc. 203 pp. ISBN 0-486-26629-X.] Okinawan habu, Kume Shima habu.Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.] ""Trimeresurus flavoviridis" is a venomous pitviper species found in Japan in the Ryukyu Islands. No subspecies are currently recognized.ITIS|ID=634913|taxon="Trimeresurus flavoviridis"|year=2008|date=25 July]

Description

Grows to an average length of 4-5 feet (122-152 cm). With a maximum of 7.5 feet (229 cm), it is the largest member of its genus. Slenderly built and gracefully proportioned with a large head. The tail, however, is not prehensile.

Scalation includes 35 (sometimes 31, 33, 37 or 39) rows of dorsal scales at midbody, 217-239 ventral scales, 72-95 subcaudal scales and 7-10 supralabial scales. The crown is covered with small scales.

The color pattern consists of a light olive of brown ground color overlaid with elongated dark green or brownish botches. The blotched have yellow edges, sometimes contain yellow spots, and frequently fuse to produce wavy stripes. The belly is whitish with dark coloring along the edges.

Common names

Habu, Okinawa habu, yellow-green tree viper,Brown JH. 1973. Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. 184 pp. LCCCN 73-229. ISBN 0-398-02808-7.] Okinawan habu, Kume Shima habu (for "T. f. tinkhami").

Geographic range

Found in Japan in the Ryukyu Islands, including Okinawa and the Amami Islands. The type locality given is "Amakarima Island (one of the Loo-Choo group)" (= Keramashima, Ryukyu Islands).

Common on the larger volcanic islands, but not present on the smaller coral islands.

Habitat

Often reported in the transition zone between palm forest and cultivated fields. Found on rock walls and in old tombs and caves.

Behavior

Terrestrial and mostly nocturnal, it often enters homes and other structures in search of rats and mice. Bold and irritable, it can strike quickly and has a long reach.

Reproduction

Oviparous, it is one of the few pitvipers that lays eggs. Mating takes place in early spring and up to 18 eggs are laid in mid-summer. The hatchlings, which emerge after an incubation period of 5-6 weeks, are 10 inches (25 cm) in length and look the same as the adults.

Predators

To reduce the population on the island of Okinawa, the small Indian mongoose, "Herpestes javanicus", was introduced in 1910. Although the effects of this introduction have not been studied, in other such cases the negative effects on species of native birds, mammals, and herpetofauna have been a source of concern for wildlife managers.Hays WST, Conant S. 2007. Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 1. A Worldwide Review of Effects of the Small Indian Mongoose, Herpestes javanicus (Carnivora: Herpestidae) Pacific Science - Volume 61, Number 1, pp. 3-16]

Venom

The incidence of snakebite in the Amami Islands is 2 per 1,000 people, which is very high. Fortunately, the venom of this species is of a relatively low toxicity with a fatality rate of only 3%. However, 6-8% do suffer permanent disability.

Brown (1973) gives LD50 values of 3.1, 4.3, 3.7, 2.7, 3.7, 3.8 mg/kg IV, 5.1 mg/kg IP and 6.0, 3.5-5.0, 4.5 mg/kg SC for toxicity.

ee also

* List of crotaline species and subspecies
*
*
*
*
* Snakebite

References

External links

*


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