name = "Phlebotomus"

image_width = 240px
image_caption = A male "Phlebotomus" fly
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Arthropoda
subphylum = Hexapoda
classis = Insecta
subclassis = Pterygota
infraclassis = Neoptera
superordo = Endopterygota|
ordo = Diptera
familia = Psychodidae
subfamilia = Phlebotominae
genus = "Phlebotomus"
genus_authority = Loew 1845
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = Numerous, including:
"P. ariasi" "P. longicuspis" "P. mascittii" "P. papatasi" "P. perniciosus" "P. sergenti"

"Phlebotomus" is a genus of "sand fly" in the Dipteran family Psychodidae. In the past, they have sometimes been considered to belong in a separate family, Phlebotomidae, but this alternative classification has not gained wide acceptance [ [ BDWD Family List ] ]


In the Old World, "Phlebotomus" sand flies are primarily responsible for the transmission of leishmaniasis, an important parasitic disease, while transmission in the New World, is generally via sand flies of the genus "Lutzomyia".cite book | author = Zeledón RA | title = Hemoflagellates: Cutaneous and Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis. "In:" Barron's Medical Microbiology "(Barron S "et al", eds.)| edition = 4th ed. | publisher = Univ of Texas Medical Branch | year = 1996 | id = [ (via NCBI Bookshelf)] ISBN 0-9631172-1-1 ] The protozoan parasite itself is a species of the genus "Leishmania". Leishmaniasis normally finds a mammalian reservoir in rodents and other small animals such as canids(Canine Leishmaniasis) and hyraxes. The female sand fly carries the "Leishmania" protozoa from infected animals after feeding, thus transmitting the disease, while the male feeds on plant nectar.

"Phlebotomus" species are also vectors for phlebotomus fever, an arbovirus caused by "Toscana virus", a member of the genus "Phlebovirus" (family Bunyaviridae).cite book | author = Shope RE | title = Bunyaviruses. "In:" Barron's Medical Microbiology "(Barron S "et al", eds.)| edition = 4th ed. | publisher = Univ of Texas Medical Branch | year = 1996 | id = [ (via NCBI Bookshelf)] ISBN 0-9631172-1-1 ] , [cite journal | author=Valassina M, Cusi MG, Valensin PE | title=A Mediterranean arbovirus: the Toscana virus | journal=J Neurovirol | year=2003 | pages=577–83 | volume=9 | issue=6 | pmid=14602570 | doi=10.1080/714044479 ] In Egypt there are two species of medical importance Phlebotomus papatasii and phlebotomus langerni. These flies are short lived. Females are blood suckers at night, males feed on plant juices. Adults are poor fliers, they usually hop for short distances.


Adults are small sized about 1.5-3 mm, yellowish in colour with conspicuous black eyes, hairy body, wings and legs. The oval lanceolate wings are carried erect on the humped thorax.Males possess long prominent genital terminalia known as claspers. Females have a pair of anal recti.

Life cycle

Females lay eggs in batches in cracks and cevices which are dark and rich in organic matter. They are small, elliptical and brownish in colour. Hatching occurs into the larval stage. Larvae are small whitish in colour with a black head capsule. From the posteriior end arise a pair of long, dark caudal bristles which are characteristic for this species.


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