- Board wargame
A board wargame is a
wargamewith a set playing surface or board, as opposed to being played on a computer, or in a more free-form playing area as in miniatures games. This type of game got its start in 1954 with the publication of "Tactics", and saw its greatest popularity in the mid- to late 1970s. Despite the decline in popularity, there are still a number of game publishers and gaming conventions dedicated to the hobby today.
United States, board wargames were popularized in the early 1970s and is often what is meant when 'wargaming' is mentioned (and this article, for simplicity, will often omit the qualifying word 'board'). Elsewhere, notably Great Britain, which arguably originated the miniatures wargaming hobby, they never gained as much traction and have remained a minor part of the larger hobby. The genreis still known for a number of common conventions (or game mechanics) that were developed early on, but are not part of the definition of a wargame, and other styles have gained popularity since.
The early history of board wargaming was dominated by
Avalon Hill, even though other companies, such as SPI, have left their own permanent marks on the industry. With the purchase of Avalon Hill by Hasbroin 1998, many wargamers long for 'the old Avalon Hill', and no one company is identified with the hobby as a whole.
Like all games, wargames exist in a range of complexities. Some are fundamentally simple (often called "beer-and-pretzel games") whereas others attempt to simulate a high level of historical realism ("consim"—short for 'conflict simulation'). These two trends are also at the heart of long-running debates about "realism vs. playability." Because of the subject matter, games considered 'simple' by wargamers can be considered 'complex' to non-wargamers, especially if they have never run into some of the concepts that most wargames share, and often assume some familiarity with.
Wargames are best considered as a representational art form. Generally, this is of a fairly concrete historical subject (such as the
Battle of Gettysburg, one of several popular topics in the genre), but it can also be extended to non-historical ones as well. The Cold Warprovided fuel for many games that attempted to show what a non-nuclear (or, in a very few cases, nuclear) World War IIIwould be like, moving from a re-creation to a predictive model in the process. Fantasyand science fictionsubjects are sometimes not considered wargames because there is nothing in the real world to model, however, conflict in a self-consistent fictional worldlends itself to exactly the same types of games and game designs as does military history.
While there is no "direct" correlation, the more serious wargames tend towards more complex rules with possibilities for more calculation and computation of odds, more exceptions (generally to reproduce unique historical circumstances), more available courses of action, and more detail or "chrome". The extreme end of this tendency are considered "
monster games", which typically consist of a large subject represented on small scale. A good example of this would be "Terrible Swift Sword", which tracks individual regiments in the Battle of Gettysburg, instead of the more common scale of battalions. These games typically have a combined playing surface (using several map sheets) larger than most tables, and thousands of counters.
Wargames tend to have a few fundamental problems. Notably, both player knowledge, and player action are much less limited than what would be available to the player's real-life counterparts. Some games have rules for command and control and
fog of war, using various methods. These mechanisms can be cumbersome and onerous, and often increase player frustration. However, there are some common solutions, such as employed by block wargames, which can simulate fog of war conditions in relatively playable ways.
The first modern mass-market wargame, presented as a board game, was designed by
Charles S. Robertsin 1952. The game, "Tactics", was published by Roberts as "The Avalon Game Company" in 1954and broke even, selling around 2,000 copies. These sales convinced Roberts that there was a market for intelligent, thoughtful, games for adults. Four years later, he decided to make a serious effort at a game company. Finding a conflict with another local company, he changed the name of the company to The Avalon Hill Game Company.cite web|url=http://www.alanemrich.com/CSR_pages/Articles/CSRspeaks.htm |title=Charles S. Roberts: In His Own Words |first=Charles |last=Roberts |authorlink=Charles S. Roberts |accessdate=2008-05-10]
The beginning of the board wargaming industry is generally tied to the name "Avalon Hill" and the publication of "
Tactics II" in 1958, along with "Gettysburg", the first board game designed to simulate a historical battle.
Avalon Hill was subject to a number of bad economic forces around
1961, and quickly ran up a large debt. In 1963Avalon Hill was sold to the Monarch Avalon Printingcompany to settle the debts. The new owners resolved to let the company continue to do what it had been doing, and while Roberts left, his friend, Tom Shaw, who already worked at the company took over. [cite web|title=About Avalon Hill |url=http://www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=ah/about |publisher= Hasbro|accessdate=2008-04-24] The sale turned out to be an advantage, as being owned by a printing company helped insure that Avalon Hill games had access to superior physical components.
Roberts had been considering producing a newsletter for his new company. Under the new management, this became the "Avalon Hill General" in
1964, a house organthat ran for 32 years.
Avalon Hill had a very conservative publishing schedule, typically about two titles a year, and wargames were only about half their line.
erious competition: SPI & GDW
This type of situation indicated a large amount of pent-up demand, and a situation that could not remain static for long. By the end of the 1960s, a number of small magazines dedicated to the hobby were springing up, along with new game companies. Many of these were not available in any store, being spread by 'word of mouth' and advertisements in other magazines.
The eventual "break-out" into a larger public was accomplished by the magazine "
Strategy & Tactics".cite web|url=http://www.costik.com/spisins.html |title=A Farewell to Hexes |accessdate=2008-05-10 |last=Costikyan |first=Greg |authorlink=Greg Costikyan |year=1996] It was started in 1966, as a typical "hobby zine", and despite some popularity soon threated to go under. However, Jim Dunniganbought the ailing magazine, and restructured his own company (then known as Poultron Press) to publish it, creating Simulations Publications, Inc. (SPI). An aggressive advertising campaign, and a new policy of including a new game in every issue, allowed "S&T" to find a much larger market, and SPI to become a company known to all wargamers as having a line of games that surpassed Avalon Hill's (at least, in numbers—arguments about quality raged).
This caused a tremendous rise in the popularity of wargaming in the early 1970s. The market grew at a fast pace, and if anything the number of wargaming companies grew at an even faster pace. As with any business, most of these were created, produced a few products, and quietly failed, leaving little more than a footnote in the history of the industry. Two of these new companies would each last for about two decades and became well known in just a few years:
Game Designers' Workshop(GDW), and Tactical Studies Rules (TSR).
Started in 1973 by
Frank Chadwick, Rich Banner, Marc Miller, and Loren Wiseman, GDW's first game, "Drang Nach Osten!", immediately garnered attention and led to the "Europa" series. They quickly followed this with other games, which also got favorable reviews. It has been estimated that GDW published one new product every 22 days for the 22 year life of the company (to be fair, this would include magazines and supplements, not just complete games). [ [http://www.farfuture.net/ffe/n1000.html Far Future Enterprises page on GDW] - (wayback|http://www.farfuture.net/ffe/n1000.html)]
TSR was started in 1973 by
Gary Gygaxand Don Kayeas a way to publish the miniature rules developed by the Tactical Studies wargaming club (thus, Tactical Studies Rules). While TSR produced several sets of miniature rules, and a few boardgames, it became much better known as the publisher of " Dungeons & Dragons" in 1974. The first role-playing game, it sparked a new phenomenon that would later grow much bigger than its parent hobby.
Boom: Task Force Games, Steve Jackson, et al....
The period 1975-1980 can be considered the 'Golden Age of Wargaming', with a large number of new companies publishing an even larger number of games throughout, powered by an explosive rise in the number of people playing wargames. Wargames also diversified in subject, with the first science-fiction wargame appearing in 1974; and in size with both
microgames and monster games first appearing during the decade.
Designer Steve Jackson produced several celebrated games for
Metagaming Conceptsand then founded his own company, Steve Jackson Gamesin 1980, which is still active today (albeit mostly as an RPG company). Task Force Gameswas founded in 1979 by former staff of JagdPanther and lived into the 1990s, and its most popular game, " Star Fleet Battles" is still in print. " Squad Leader", often cited as the highest selling wargame ever, was published in 1977.
The list of wargame companies started in the late '70s with some claim to notability could go on for quite some time, as would a list of notable games. With less than a decade as an industry with more than one major source of content, wargames were starting to find their feet in terms of design and business.
Crash: The Death of SPI
The boom came to an end, and was followed by the usual bust, at the beginning of the 1980s, most markedly with the acquisition of SPI by TSR in 1982. From 1975 to 1981 SPI reported $2 million in sales—steady dollar volume during a time when inflation was in double-digits. By 1982 SPI was in financial trouble and eventually secured a loan from TSR to help it meet payroll. TSR soon asked for the money back, and SPI had to agree to be taken over by TSR. As a
secured creditor, they had first opportunity at SPI's assets. However, they refused to take over SPI's liabilities. This had two effects: One, all loans to SPI from venture capital went unpaid. Two, TSR refused to honor existing subscriptions to SPIs three magazines, which TSR took over, in addition to nearly the entire existing line of SPI's games. Largely as a result of this, "Strategy & Tactics" circulation shrank from its high mark of 36,000 in 1980, until TSR sold it off to World Wide Wargames(3W) in 1986, where its circulation continued to shrink to a low 10,000 in 1990.cite journal|last=Owen |first=Seth |authorlink=Seth Owen |year=1990 |month=July |title=The History of Wargaming 1975-1990 |journal= Strategy & Tactics|issue=136 |url=http://pawnderings.blogspot.com/2008/04/history-of-wargaming-1975-1990.html]
Meanwhile, most of the existing staff left SPI, and negotiated a deal with Avalon Hill. Avalon Hill formed a subsidiary company, Victory Games, staffed by the former SPI employees. Victory Games was allowed to publish pretty much what they wanted, and produced many commercially and critically successful wargames. However, there were no new hires to replace departing personnel, and the company slowly died a death of neglect in the 1990s.
If this was not the start of a bust that affected board wargaming through the 1980s and beyond, then it was the first symptom. This period is marked by a decrease in the number of wargamers, and lack of new companies with commercial viability while the larger companies experiment with ways to sell more games in a shrinking market. There are a number of theories that have been given for this extended slump. It has been speculated that wargames became too complex in the late '70s, limiting the market catastrophically. It has also been thought that potential wargamers moved to computer games and role-playing games instead. None of the theories are truly satisfactory, and counter-arguments can be leveled against all of them. Most likely, it is a combination of all these factors and a change in the cultural expectations of what is a good use of free time.
While TSR tried to leverage its line of existing SPI property, Milton Bradley started the Gamemaster line of mass-appeal wargames in 1984. With the financial backing of a company much larger than any in the wargame business, the Gamemaster games had excellent production quality, with mounted full-color boards (something that only Avalon Hill could regularly do), and plenty of small plastic miniatures as game pieces. The games were generally simple, by wargaming standards, but very playable and successful. The first game of the line, "
Axis and Allies", is still in print today, and has spawned a number of spinoff titles.
While the wargaming business continued to be poor, new companies continued to be formed.
GMT Games, one of the most respected names in wargaming today, got started in 1991.cite web |url=http://www.gmtgames.com/gmt_help.html#gmt |title=For what do the letters GMT stand? |accessdate=2008-06-12 |last=MacGowan |first=Rodger |authorlink=Rodger MacGowan |publisher= GMT Games]
However, the popularity of role-playing games,
computer games, and, finally, collectible card gamescontinued to draw in new players. These attracted the same sort of players that had gravitated to wargames before, which led to a declining, and aging, population in the hobby. The continued marginal sales of wargames took its toll on the older companies. Game Designers' Workshop went out of business in 1996. Task Force Games went bankrupt in 1999.
Finally, in 1998 Avalon Hill itself was sold to
Hasbro. While it might have been possible for Hasbro to revitalize the company and wargaming with its distribution chain and marketing clout, it was shown that Hasbro had no interest in this with the immediate laying off of the entire AH staff and the closure of its web site.web cite |url=http://www.costik.com/arequiemfo-ed-1.html |title=A Requiem for the Hill |accessdate=2008-06-12 |last=Costikyan |first=Greg |authorlink=Greg Costikyan |year=1998] Combined with Wizards of the Coast's acquisition of TSR the year before, and their acquisition by Hasbro the year after, what is sometimes called the "adventure gaming market" was going through a profound shakeup.
Hasbro has kept the Avalon Hill name as a brand, and republished a few of its extensive back catalog of games, as well as released new ones, and moved the remnant of the Gamemaster series ("Axis and Allies") from Milton Bradley to Avalon Hill. While "A&A" is the only wargame offered by the "new" Avalon Hill, several of AH's wargames have been reprinted by other companies, starting with
Multi-Man Publishing's license for the rights to " Advanced Squad Leader". [cite web|url=http://www.wargamer.com/articles/ah_rebirth/asl_v2.asp |title=Schilling Pitching for ASL |accessdate=2008-06-12 |last=McLaughlin |first=Mark |authorlink=Mark G. McLaughlin |publisher= Wargamer, LLC]
Despite the long-term malaise of the board wargaming industry, it does continue and shows no sign of shutting down completely in the foreseeable future. It can even be argued that the hobby is doing better now than for the past two decades. Whether this is wishful thinking, a side effect of the Internet's power to bring widely scattered groups together, or an actual recovery, is, naturally, difficult to determine.
This is made more difficult by a lack of hard figures from the publishers. "The Complete Wargames Handbook" shows sales of wargames (historical only) peaking in 1980 at 2.2 million, and tapering off to 400,000 in 1991. [cite book |last=Dunnigan |first=James |authorlink=Jim Dunnigan |title=The Complete Wargames Handbook |url=http://www.hyw.com/Books/WargamesHandbook/Contents.htm |accessdate=2008-06-05 |edition=2nd editon |origyear=1992 |isbn=0-688-10368-5] It also estimates a peak of about a few hundred thousand (again, historical) board wargamers in the U.S. in 1980, with about as many more in the rest of the world; the estimate for 1991 is about 100,000 total.
Another estimate puts the current number of board wargamers in the 15,000 range (this is limited to people "purchasing" games, which leaves some room for groups with one person who buys the games, or people who stick to older titles—which, if they exist, would be cold comfort for publishers). During 2006, several publishers reported that sales were up, but this could remain a short-term bump in sales. [web cite |url=http://www.armchairgeneral.com/articles.php?p=2958&page=1&cat=59 |title=The State of Wargaming |accessdate=2008-06-05 |last=Peck |first=Michael |authorlink=Michael Peck |publisher=
Armchair General Magazine|date=2006]
The actual subject matter of wargames is broad, and many approaches have been taken over the years towards the goals of simulating wars on a grand or personal scale. Some of the more popular movements constitute established sub-genres of their own that most wargamers will recognize.
The oldest of the sub-genres, and the one that still retains "iconic" status for board wargaming as a whole. It got its start with the first board wargame, "Tactics", (which, ironically, used a square grid, hexes were a slightly later innovation), and is still used in many wargames today.
In its most typical form, a hex-and-counter wargame has a map with a
hexagonal gridimposed over it, units are represented with cardboard countersthat commonly have a unit type and designation as well as numerical combat and movement factors. Players take turns moving and conducting attacks. Combat is typically resolved with an odds-based combat results table(CRT) using a six sided die.
This sub-genre was created in the early 1970s, when
Gamma Two Gamesproduced the three initial games of this type. It has long been the province of Gama Two and its successor, Columbia Games, but recently other companies have been putting out games of the same type.
The defining aspect of this type of game is the use of wooden blocks for the units. These are tilted on their side normally, and then put down for combat. Until combat occurs, the opponent can see how many units are where, but not what type and what strength, introducing
fog of waraspects. The blocks are also rotated to show different strength values in a step-reductionsystem.
The most recent of the major types of board wargame, it was created by the game "We the People" published by Avalon Hill in 1994. In most aspects it is much like a typical board wargame (on the simpler side of the spectrum), but play is driven by a deck of cards that both players draw from. These cards control "activation points", which allow the use of troops, as well as events that represent things outside the normal scope of the game.
Design and mechanics
The design of wargames is a much-studied concept, with designers often providing articles reflecting on elements of the design, either in the rules themselves, or in a magazine article published around the same time. In part, this detailed study of design can be attributed to the fact that wargames are often variations on a limited number of techniques. More important however, is the fact they are often based upon historical events, and it is useful for people looking at the game as a historical simulation to understand what factors about the conflict were incorporated into the game and what was glossed over or not represented, and why.
List of wargame publishers
List of board wargames
International Wargames Federation
Game Manufacturers Association
Origins Game Fair
* [http://www.consimworld.com ConsimWorld.com Wargame news and discussion site]
* [http://www.wargamer.com/ The Wargamer War & strategy games website, tabletop, miniature, and computer] (Currently down)
* [http://www.grognard.org Web-Grognards Has a listing of most every game and publisher, usually with reviews, extra scenarios, after action reports, etc]
* [http://www.boardgamers.org Board Game Players Association Noncommercial group manages the Avaloncon convention and other board wargame events]
* [http://point2pointsource.com/ Point2Point Wargaming podcast]
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