- Pesticide formulation
The biological activity of a pesticide, be it chemical or biological in nature, is determined by its
active ingredient(AI - also called the "active substance"). Pesticide products very rarely consist of pure technical material. The AI is usually formulated with other materials and this is the product as sold, but it may be further diluted in use. Formulation improves the properties of a chemical for handling, storage, application and may substantially influence effectiveness and safety [Knowles, DA (1998) "Chemistry and technology of agricultural formulations". Kluwer Academic, London] .
Formulation terminology follows a 2-letter convention: ("e.g." GR: granules) listed by CropLife International (formerly GIFAP then GCPF) in the "Catalogue of Pesticide Formulation Types" (Monograph 2); see: [http://www.croplife.org/monographs.aspx?wt.ti=Technical%20monographs| download page] . Some manufacturers do not follow these industry standards, which can cause confusion for users.
By far the most frequently used products are formulations for mixing with water then applying as sprays.Water miscible, older formulations include:
* EC Emulsifiable concentrate
* WP Wettable powder
* SL Soluble (liquid) concentrate
* SP Soluble powder
Newer, non-powdery formulations with reduced or no use of hazardous solvents and improved stability include:
* SC Suspension concentrate
* CS Capsule suspensions
* WG Water dispersible granules
Other Pesticide Formulations
Other common formulations include granules (GR) and dusts (DP), although for improved safety the latter have been replaced by microgranules (MG "e.g". for
ricefarmers in Japan). Specialist formulations are available for ultra-low volumespraying, fogging, fumigation, "etc". Very occasionally, some pesticides ("e.g". malathion) may be sold as technical material (TC - which is mostly AI, but also contains small quantities of, usually non-active, by-products of the manufacturing process).
A particularly efficient form of pesticide dose transfer is
seed treatmentand specific formulations have been developed for this purpose. A number of pesticide baitformulations are available for rodentpest control, "etc".
The major groups of pesticide formulations can be illustrated as follows:
2. Burges, H.D. (ed.) (1998) "Formulation of Microbial Biopesticides, beneficial microorganisms, nematodes and seed treatments". Kluwer Academic Press, 412 pp.
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